Niccolo Machiavelli( Outstanding Italian historian)
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Biography Niccolo Machiavelli
Outstanding Italian historian and political thinker of the Renaissance, Machiavelli was born in Florence, the family lawyer. Educated in the urban and private schools, studied the Latin classics, the right. In 1498-1512 he. was in the public service as Secretary Office of the Second Florentine Republic, traveled a lot for the Signoria (supreme organ of the republic), was in France, the Tyrol, Milan, Mantua. Among friends Machiavelli's leading political figures of Florence - Soderini Pietro and Francesco Vettori. His career was interrupted in 1513 when the country again (after 1494) tyranny of the Medici. The suspect in the conspiracy prrtiv Medici, Machiavelli was removed from the political affairs and sent into exile in his small estate near Florence.
1513-1520 years were the times of the greatest creative activity Machiavelli. During this period he wrote his principal political writings 'Emperor' and 'Discourses on Livy', a treatise 'On the art of war', comedy 'Mandrake'. In subsequent years, following the instructions Florentine merchants, Machiavelli makes a trip to Lucca and Venice and wrote 'History of Florence' (commissioned by Pope Clement VII), which presents the pope in Rome in 1525, Mr.. In 1526-1527 gg., When Florence was threatened Spanish troops, Machiavelli creates a project to strengthen the walls of the city and is part of the commission taken by the implementation of this project. In May 1527, when the power was overthrown by the Medici, Machiavelli offers his candidacy for Chancellor of the Florentine republic, but the vote in the Big Board was not in his favor. Heavy experiencing failure, he died shortly thereafter.
As a political thinker Machiavelli made a genuine revolution in the established tradition, freeing politics from the shackles of theology and placing it on a real basis - the study of reality itself. Machiavelli saw in the policy of science and art, the ability to thoroughly analyze the real situation, in theory to make sense of it and find the right solution, clever tactics for translating theory into practice. Especially well-realism of his political thought can be seen in 'the Emperor', which was intended to give guidance on the creation of a strong centralized state, able to withstand external and internal enemies. Machiavelli deeply experienced the tragedy of a fragmented Italy, which became the scene of devastating wars that are fought on its territory, France and Spain. Soberly assessing the circumstances, relying on the middle classes and not trusting fully know or plebes, the emperor has a firm hand to strengthen his authority, not restricting themselves moral standards, if the situation dictates. 'The Emperors must have a flexible ability to change their beliefs, as applicable, and ... if possible, not to avoid an honest way, but in case of need to resort to dishonest means' (Sire, Ch. 18). Hard methods of government, including deceit, deception, bribery, betrayal and t. etc., taken in isolation from the patriotic goal, which was guided by Machiavelli, creating 'Emperor', in the political thought of subsequent centuries were absolutized, having registered in the concept of 'Machiavellianism'.
. Great was the contribution of Machiavelli in the development of historical thought, he first drew attention to the social struggle as an important factor in the development of society
. Analyzing the history of medieval Florence, . he makes a clear conclusion: 'Razdory arose first among Nobile, . then between Nobile and popolanami and, . Finally, . between popolanami and plebs, . and, moreover, very often the case, . that even among the winners split occurred ',
. Machiavelli came to an understanding of class struggle as the driving force of history.
Machiavelli famous as a writer, especially satirical comedy 'Mandrake', ridiculed sanctimonious morality.