Sima Qian( Historian)
Comments for Sima Qian
Biography Sima Qian
(145 OR 135-OK. 86 BC)
In ancient China played a big role cult of the past. Assessment of any act of any political step necessarily correlated with examples of the past, real or sometimes invented. Each time the specific ruler, and then, after the unification of China, at the imperial court necessarily held historian, a fixed current events. So at 2 in. BC. e. accumulated number of chronicles, annals and t. n., mainly local. Extend them, to bring together fell to an outstanding historian, known as 'Chinese Herodotus' - Sima Qian.
. Son of the court historian Sima Tanya, he began serving at the court of the Han emperor Wu in positions reminiscent of Russian 'official roving'
. After the death of his father, he took his place. Facing court camarilla in 99 g. BC. e. (Sima Qian rebuked calumniated commander Li Lin) ended tragically for the historian: he was in prison and was painful and humiliating punishment. After his release from prison Sima Qian returned to the court and the last years of his life was the keeper of the imperial press.
. Like all Chinese court historians of the time, Sima Qian was supposed to contain in the order of the imperial archives, as well as engage in astronomy and astrology
. In particular, he actively participated in the development calendar, which became the foundation of modern Chinese lunar calendar.
. But the main thing the whole life of Sima Qian, who brought him immortal fame, was the creation of monumental 'Historical notes' ( 'Chi Chi')
. The book was written, apparently, informally, perhaps even secretly. The fame she has received only 30-40 years after his death.
. Major work by Sima Qian, containing 130 chapters, more than half a million characters, covers a huge period of Chinese history - from the legendary rulers (mid-3rd millennium BC
. BC.), and almost to the end of the reign of Emperor Wu Di (140-87 BC. e.). It is written in a somewhat unusual for us to fashion: it is not a consistent presentation of historical events, . a set of biographies of persons crowned, . hereditary nobility and prominent people of different social classes - the generals, . diplomats, . Poetry, . Scientists, . large traders and artisans,
. For the first time in historiographical practice in China Sima Qian was the most detailed chronological summary tables, free from many inaccuracies local chronicles. In an essay also includes thematic essays - on etiquette, music, laws, calendar, economics and t. d.
. Sima Qian widely used material of the imperial archives, but not just compile them, and selected the most significant, processing, generalized.
. This monumental work, he wrote not only to present historical events
. Historian, saw his goal is to help people to draw conclusions from the past, to understand what is the benefit, and that - to the detriment of the country. Therefore, Sima Qian critically assessed the activities of many rulers and aristocrats and also included in the book of biographies of leaders of peasant uprisings ( 'bandits' from the official point of view), as well as 'selling and manufacturing', t. e. representatives of trade and handicraft sectors.
Book by Sima Qian had a tremendous influence on the development of historical science in China. In particular, a mandatory attribute of court life was the preparation of a detailed history of all the ruling dynasties. Much of these materials are preserved to this day.