Carlyle, Thomas( English philosopher, historian and publicist.)
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Biography Carlyle, Thomas
English philosopher, historian, essayist. Tried to explain the world's history, the decisive role of the great personalities.
Carlyle was born in the village Eklfekan (Scotland), in the family of rural mason. He studied law at Edinburgh University, an honorary rector of which was elected in 1866. Since 1824. lived mainly in London, was engaged in literary work. Watching 'situation in England' in the era of the industrial revolution, Carlyle felt, on the one hand, the sympathy of the masses, victims of large-scale machine factory production, on the other - a growing fear of their self-presentations (see. Chartism). This internal conflict has deep spiritual crisis, . manifested in a break with the religious dogma and moral precepts of philosophical theories, . especially utilitarianism of Bentham, . who taught, . that the only benefit may be a criterion of truth and the common good is achieved only as a simple sum of individual happiness, . rationally pursuing selfish ends,
. However, Carlyle rejected the idea of mind as an instrument of knowledge about the innate equality of people, people as a source of power and attacked with caustic sarcasm of democracy and parliamentarism.
. Carlyle has put forward its own historical and philosophical concept
. The universe, nature, people, history - the result of divine creation and the fishing is not understandable with the limited capacity of the human mind. 'The past is a dark immutable fact.
The future is also a fact, but even more dark '. But the situation of humanity is not hopeless. Every object, a fact that the event is a sign, symbol. But not everyone can understand their meaning, but only those who are given the gift of a holistic perception of the world through enlightenment, revelation, intuition, imagination. They were the ones yalyayutsya 'elected', 'best', 'wise', 'heroes', 'genius', representing 'true nobility' in every society. All the rest - 'a countless crowd of silly little men'. 'Heroes' might be the commander and political leader (O. Cromwell, Napoleon), and poet-writer (A. Dante D. Milton, P. Bern), and a religious prophet (Mohammed). While alive 'heroism', the case in the world are normally. But over time the real heroes are giving way to false. The main sign of this - the deterioration of the masses. Energy destitute, desperate people turns into a destructive force. The time of the riots, insurrections, revolutions. Their goal - to encourage society to find new heroes to tame the masses were forced to remain calm, labor, performance of duty. The feudal system with its domination of the elect, to guarantee social protection for the masses - that is the ideal to be followed by a modern industrial society.
. Carlyle declares that the history of the world 'is the only biography of great men, striven here on earth'
. But sincere sympathy to the oppressed, as well as colossal erudition allowed Carlyle to create some real masterpieces, in which such events as the British bourgeoisie revolution 17. and the French Revolution 1789 - 1799 gg., Chartism, see the bright lights and historical justification.