Ferdinand II( The King of Bohemia)
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Biography Ferdinand II
Ferdinand II (1578-1637). From the House of Habsburg. King of Bohemia in 1617-1627 he. King of Hungary in 1618-1625 he. King German in 1619-1636 he. Emperor 'Holy Roman Empire' in the years 1619-1637. Sredneavstriyskogo son of Archduke Charles II and Maria of Bavaria.
1) 23 Apr. 1600 g. Maria Anna, daughter of the Bavarian Duke Wilhelm V (genus. 1574. + 1616);
2), February 4, 1622, Mr.. Eleanor, daughter of the Duke of Mantua Vincenzo I (genus. 1598 g. + 1655).
Genus. July 9, 1578, Mr.. + 15 Feb.. 1637
While still in the infant years, Ferdinand lost his father and brought up by his uncle, the Bavarian Duke Wilhelm. Since 1590, Mr.. He studied at the University of Ingolstadt, where he taught the Jesuit fathers. Here, the future Emperor was brought home most stringent rules of faith and the most exalted notion of his imminent destiny. From his early years until his death, Ferdinand considered himself a warrior of the Catholic Church, designed by God to restore its ancient teachings. In 1595, Mr.. he returned to Graz, in the following year was declared an adult and took possession of his duchy Sredneavstriyskim (composed of Styria, Carinthia and Krajina). By the nature of Ferdinand was a pleasant man of the world: good and merciful to approximate to the servants, he easily made friends with people, was generous, loved music passionately and fervently hunter. However, it was the sovereign activities and business, never neglect their duties. But the main feature of his personality was fanatically committed to the Catholic Church, which he was ready to serve in word and sword. The Jesuits have had a huge impact on. Two of them have always been in his hallway and had the right to include him at all times, even at night, for advice and edification. Hardly taking power, the young Duke was relentlessly pursue the Protestants. Everyone who did not want to change religion, Ferdinand ordered to leave the country. After a few years in the Austrian dominions, where the first half of the population consisted of Lutherans and Calvinists, there was not a Protestant church.
Soon the ambitious Habsburg was able to expand its field of. Since the older cousins. Ferdinand brothers, Rudolph and Matthew, had no sons, his from the beginning of XVII century was seen as their potential heir. Every year, he had more influence on imperial affairs. In 1617, Mr.. Ferdinand was elected King of Bohemia, and the next year joined the Hungarian throne. After that began the difficult negotiations with the imperial princes to elect the Emperor Ferdinand. At this point, in May 1618, broke a national uprising in Prague, served as a prologue to the devastating Thirty Years' War. Learning about the events in Prague, Ferdinand began to act decisively and firmly. He ordered the arrest of the chief advisor of Emperor Matthew Cardinal Klezelya, who offered to make concessions to Czechs. After that, the old and poor Matthew is in no way interfered with Ferdinand and dutifully signed all his decrees.
Meanwhile, the revolt in the Czech Republic was supported by Protestants in Austria itself. The Czechs, led by Count Thurn moved to Vienna in June 1619, Mr.. took possession of its suburbs. At the same time, the rebels captured the Austrian imperial palace and demanded that Ferdinand to declare religious freedom. One of the brave leaders of the opposition Tonradel grasped even a button imperial jacket and repeatedly pushed Ferdinand. Fortunately, the city just joined a cavalry unit, and the rebels were startled with a loud trumpets.
In August, after the death of Matthias, Ferdinand was elected emperor. He ascended the throne under the most difficult circumstances. The Czechs have already openly seceded from the Habsburgs, declared Ferdinand deposed and handed the crown pfaltskomu Elector Friedrich V, the Hungarians were willing to follow their example, all Protestants considered the emperor as an enemy. Everywhere there were preparations for war. At first, the Catholics have a significant advantage over their opponents. Tilly, commander of the Bavarian army, easily suppressed the disturbances in Upper and Lower Austria, joined the Czech Republic and quickly pushed the rebels to the walls of Prague. The Czechs took the rise in the west from its capital, which was called the White Mountain. November 8 Tilly attacked their positions and won a decisive victory. This put an end to the Czech uprising. Prague opened the gates to the victorious imperial army, Moravia and Silesia also expressed their allegiance. 'Writ' and other acts, who gave the Czechs a national and religious freedom had been destroyed, and the law of the Seimas cut so that the Czech Republic was on the situation of the Austrian province. But, in order to completely eradicate the spirit of freedom in the kingdom, was not enough for some of the laws. On the uprising collapsed harsh crackdown: 24 nobles were beheaded in Prague, many nobles and ordinary citizens punished by whipping, imprisoned or expelled from the country. Then began the confiscation of estates, which took enormous size. Three-quarters of all the lands were taken away from the national nobility, monasteries and given to a German Catholics. Since the nobility for centuries was considered the main force of the national movement, this action had broken the freedom-loving spirit of the Czech people. At the same time went plantation Catholicism. All Czech suspicious content of the book were burned. Anyone who did not wish to renounce the Protestant faith, was ordered to leave the country. Around 40 thousand families then went into exile.
As the Elector Palatine Frederick no wish to abandon the title of Bohemian king, given him the rebels, he became the next victim of Catholics - to 1623, Mr.. Bavarians have mastered all the Palatinate. Then on the side of the Protestants entered the war the Danish King Christian IV, had received substantial grants from the UK to recruit troops. Seeing that Protestants multiply their forces, leaders of the Catholic League demanded help from the emperor. Ferdinand himself understood that it is impossible to put all the hardships of war on one Bavarian army, but he has absolutely no means to set their own troops. In these difficult circumstances, the Duke of Friedland Wallenstein undertook to deliver the army of the emperor at his own expense. Two years later he gathered under the banner of more than 50 thousand adventurers from all over Europe, organized them and created a very efficient army. The main idea of Wallenstein was that the army itself must provide themselves exacting indemnities from the population. Soon he was able to arrange things so that the Emperor is almost nothing for the content of his army. True, had to close our eyes to the fact that wherever the soldiers appeared Wallenstein, started across-the looting, killings and brutal torture of civilians. But because of his brave warriors were able not only to loot but also to fight and actually scored glorious victories, Ferdinand for a long time paid no attention to their excesses.
In April 1626, Mr.. Wallenstein inflicted a decisive defeat for the Protestants Dessauskogo bridge on the Elbe. Then he moved to Hungary and forced there the rebels into submission. Meanwhile Tilly beside Lutter routed Christian. The whole northern Germany hastened to express obedience to the emperor. Wallenstein and Tilly, pursuing the Danes, took possession of all Holstein, Schleswig and Jutland. In 1629, Mr.. Ferdinand signed with Christian world. Danish king got back all their possessions, but had to refrain from interfering in the affairs of Germanic. In March of that year the emperor promulgated the Edict of restitution (restoration), in which Protestants were Catholics return all the land they have conquered the world after the Augsburg. This law took away from two Protestants archdiocese, twelve bishoprics, many monasteries, Priories, and other possessions. Its enforcement Protestant party would be finally broken. However, in the way of ambition Ferdinand got the Swedish King Gustav Adolf. In the summer of 1630, Mr.. He declared war on the emperor, and quickly mastered from Mecklenburg-Pomerania.
War resumed with the same ferocity. In the same year, Tilly took Magdenburg and gave him a terrible havoc. City burned to the ground, about 20 thousand people have been killed by the sword, fire and horror. Then Tilly invaded Saxony and took Leipzig. Outraged by the Saxons, before that to be neutral, sided with the Gustavus Adolphus. September 17, 1631, Mr.. Breytenfeld happened near the village of great battle, and Tilly had suffered a defeat it. After this important victory of Gustavus Adolphus captured the Wurzburg and invaded the Rhine Palatinate. In 1632, Mr.. he moved against Bavaria. In April, at the Battle of Lech Tilly was defeated a second time and received a mortal wound. But when followed by the Swedish king attacked the camp of Wallenstein, near Nuremberg, he met strong resistance and retreated with heavy losses. Wallenstein joined him in Saxony. Nov. 16 at Lutzen occurred decisive battle. Under pressure from the Swedes shelves Wallenstein were scattered and thrown. But the winner of the Gustavus Adolphus fell in this battle, and it nullified the entire success of his army. The Protestant coalition collapsed. Swedes avoided decisive action and did not seem as dangerous. But was the other threat. By the early 30-ies the power Wallenstein became so great that it became the most fearsome emperor. In 1634, Mr.. senior army officers conspired in favor of his commander. Learning of this, Ferdinand ordered loyal troops to crush the revolt with all possible firmness, however, he gave secret orders Eger Governor Gordon deal with Wallenstein. February 25 famous commander was suddenly caught by the killers in their castle and put to death the minute he stepped out of the bathroom.
The new head of the Imperial Army Gallas took Regensburg. and in September defeated the Swedes in Nordlingene. Elector of Saxony had to backtrack from its allies and the spring of 1635, Mr.. concluded with the emperor of the world in Prague. The treaty left the Protestants for the lands they owned in 1552, Mr.. and the right in the continuation of 40 years to enjoy the possessions that were assigned between 1552 and 1555 he. Other Protestant princes resented the treachery of the Saxons, but they had one after another inmate to join the world. In this war would end if it were not for the intervention of France. In October 1635, Mr.. Cardinal Richelieu drew to his side of Duke Bernard of Weimar. In French gold he collected a large army and led the successful action against the imperial generals. The war was breaking out with renewed force. Ferdinand had not lived up to its end - he died two years after the Prague of the world.