Friedrich Wilhelm I( King of Prussia)
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Biography Friedrich Wilhelm I
Friedrich Wilhelm I (1688-1740) - King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty, who ruled in 1713-1740 he. Son of Frederick I and Sophia Charlotte of Hanover.
Wife: in 1706, Mr.. Sophia Dorothea, daughter of King George I (born. 1687 g. + 1757).
Genus. 1688 g. + 31 May 1740
Friedrich Wilhelm was the complete opposite of his father. He hated the etiquette and maintain accurate expense of the smallest expenses and was a model of thrift. Having gained the throne, he has reduced most of the courtiers of posts (so the number of gentlemen had been reduced from 100 to 12), dismissed many servants and reduced the salaries of the remaining. Jewels and visiting the horses of his father, he sold at auction, and the royal silver utensils ordered melted into coin. All his life he wore a threadbare blue coat with brass buttons. (When the King sewed. new uniform, the buttons on it by altering the old.) Luxury and gorgeous clothes were permanently removed from the Berlin court. Theatrical performances, concerts and balls also completely stopped in his reign. The only entertainment of the king were military shows, hunting and the famous 'tobacco board', to which were invited, along with the generals and near people, also young officers. As in Berlin and in Potsdam, the King had a special room for smoking. Before dinner, he kept them in a council of war, and in the evenings smoked and drank beer with ministers. Other goodies consisted of goat meat, ham, cold roast meat. All guests must have been smoking tobacco, or at least keep the mouth empty tube. These boards discussed the most important state affairs.
In close communion Friedrich Wilhelm was a hard man: he was brusque in manner, and nesgovorchiv prichudliv, intemperate in drink, very hot in anger and fast to massacre. No one - neither the ministers nor the judge nor the villagers - were not protected from its cane. Not just a hot hand hit his children and the Queen herself. But most of all, he would not tolerate slackers. After a morning of the show is usually the king was walking on the streets, and if met runabout strollers that with terrible curses sent him home to take cases, thus rewarding the blows. Once, he held several strolling ladies, lectured his broom and made revenge Platz. Such austerity inspired fear in the inhabitants. Once on the streets of Berlin a passer-by, seeing the king, started running from him that it forces. Friedrich Wilhelm ordered immediately to catch him.
'Why are you running from me, slacker? " - Ominously he asked the fugitive. 'I was afraid, your majesty', - he answered. King began to beat him with a stick, saying: 'You must love me, love, love, and not be afraid, do-nothing! " Two passion filled his life: a passion for money and a passion for soldiers. He was from a young age showed great love to all military. After the father allowed Frederick William to make of their peers, nobles company Cadet favorite job was teaching the little prince army, which he put in special uniforms and taught to maneuver wonderful. This children's tendency to more developed after the accession to the throne. The main idea of Friedrich Wilhelm was the fact that the king should be strong, and for this he needs a good army, because a good host is the main basis of the greatness of the country. From 45 thousand people in 1713, Mr.. Prussian army was brought up to 64 thousand in 1725, and in the year of death of Friedrich Wilhelm has reached 84 thousand. Only France and Austria had in this era of greater forces. Special care was to improve the king's officer corps. Military career had made a most noble and desirable profession Prussian nobility. The King is strictly followed in order to soldiers were always well fed, healthy, and dressed, but in the demands of discipline and military bearing was adamant: each scientist was accompanied by severe punishment of guilty, and scientists continued from morning till night. The King is revered for its Potsdam Guards, composed of soldiers of gigantic stature (their high costs were caught in all the countries of Europe). Nothing can be more pleasing to him as the delivery of tall guys in the regiment. Friedrich Wilhelm knew all their guards by name, gave them all kinds of gifts and performed their petitions more readily than the requests of its ministers. It is interesting that with all this. Friedrich Wilhelm almost no part in military conflicts. In 1715, Mr.. He joined the Northern war on Russia's side and received in 1720, Mr.. on the Stockholm peace Vorpommern from Stettin, the island of Wolin and the mouth of the Oder.
While many forces of the army, the king did not forget the other public duties. By nature he was ignorant rude, but it remained an intelligent, industrious and honest monarch. He is very clearly aware of the needs of Prussia, did not neglect any detail and would like to see everything with my own eyes. Very few rulers were then the same activity as. 'Lord, - said Friedrich Wilhelm, - created the kings, not in order that they spent their time in pleasure, but in order to govern their land. Emperor exists in order to work, and if he wants to rule fairly, he should take over control of affairs'. First of all, King Radel to increase government revenue and personally led them established the General Directorate of Finance. From all p ministerial officials of the executive and the King demanded accuracy and absolutely could not tolerate contradictions. The blow stick is often underpinned rudeness of his answers: 'his eyes were everywhere and stick'. All employees were trembling before him.
To increase revenue, King was concerned about population growth. The wounds inflicted by the Thirty Years' War of Prussia, is far from healed. Many villages lie in ruins, and many houses in the cities have not yet been restored. Friedrich Wilhelm tried to populate the wasteland of Protestant settlers, who convenes to her from all over Europe and deceive many benefits. He not only gave their own land, but took upon himself the part of the cost of building houses and for many years to free the immigrants from all taxes. Thus were founded hundreds of villages, drained swamps and mastered gavelskie vast stretches. Reception and settlement of colonists treated Friedrich Wilhelm in huge amounts. Thus, for example, inviting a 15 thousand Salzburg Protestants, Catholics driven from their lands, the king for six years, spent a million thalers a year for their accomplishment. But he knew that it's worth it. Soon, thanks to immigrants Prussia was completely transformed. Skilled artisans Salzburg to raise the welfare of small Prussian town, which before they knew Industry. King of serfdom was abolished in all of its specific lands and decree of 22 March 1719, Mr.. invited to follow this example all the nobles. He forbade whisk peasants from the land and limited the use of corporal punishment, which they have been until now.
In the cities the king was concerned about the foundation of factories in all industries. He wanted to industrial production increased along with agriculture, but in order to make the people buy less goods of foreign production, the major products exempt from import duties. In total, state revenue grew with him until the 7 million thalers. But he was not content with material well being of his state - at least he watched for the spiritual development of people and the spread of education among the lower classes. During his tenure at public expense were several thousand schools and built many churches. In Berlin, he established a medical faculty and hospital. However, the king disliked the arts and wary scientists. Universities and both Academy came under Frederick William in full decay. The famous philosopher Wolff was expelled from the academy because of his teachings, as he considered the king, excuse me escape from the motherland.