Friedrich Wilhelm II( King of Prussia)
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Biography Friedrich Wilhelm II
Friedrich Wilhelm II (1744-1797) - King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty, who ruled in 1786-1797 he.
Wife: from 1765. Elizabeth, daughter of the Duke of Brunswick-Volfenbyutelskogo Charles I (born. 1746 g. + 1840), 2) with 1769. Frederick, daughter of Landgrave of Hesse-Darishtadtskogo (genus. 1751 g. + 1805).
Genus. 1744 g. + 16 November 1797
Friedrich Wilhelm had some innate friendliness and chivalrous spirit, urging him to romantic enterprise. However, he did not have any knowledge or common sense, nor the will to the King. In his youth, while still crown prince, he gave vent to his lust for pleasure and very soon incurred the displeasure of his uncle Frederick II, who always treated his nephew is very cold and did not allow management. Life of Friedrich Wilhelm wore frankly scandalous. He married in 1765. to Elizabeth Christina, the daughter of the Duke of Brunswick, he soon made the dissolution of the marriage, to marry Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt. The second marriage was no more fortunate than the first. Then, Friedrich Wilhelm, without taking even a divorce, married morganatic first Countess Voss, then Countess Dongof. All this did not prevent him contain more and mistresses. The most famous of them was pretty Wilhelmine Encke, which he ascended to the throne, made the countess Lichtenau. She gained enormous influence on the case and played a role in Prussia, Madame de Pompadour. Despite the tendency to profligacy, the king readily believed in the supernatural, and was heavily influenced by the Theosophists, who avidly enjoyed his weakness.
As the Emperor Friedrich Wilhelm greatly inferior to his great predecessor. An avid musician, he closely followed the development of fine arts in his reign began the development of German theater. In the army, he increased salaries, reduced the discipline and destroyed some of the abuse. But in general, it is seen stagnation and decline in all: the army is gradually losing its morale, . Finance upset, . industry had no income, . trade, . enmeshed monopolies and taxes, . gradually stunted, . colonization weakened, . oppression of the peasants intensified,
. Key events in his reign occurred in the area of foreign policy. Already in August 1791. Friedrich Wilhelm and Emperor Leopold II had agreed on joint action against revolutionary France. In April 1792, Mr.. France herself declared war on 'King of Hungary and Bohemia', but in fact the whole empire. At first, the Prussian army, united with the Austrian, was to press the French. Were taken of the city Valenciennes, Longwy and Verdun. The Prussians had invaded Champagne, began to threaten Paris. But soon the army of General Dumouriez stopped the German advance in the battle of Valmy (20 September), and forced them to retreat across the Rhine. The French were in pursuit, took Mainz and Frankfurt. In early December, began the reverse movement - Duke of Brunswick again took Frankfurt. In March 1793, Mr.. imperial army crossed the Rhine. Only Mainz during the four months of stubbornly defended by the Prussians. Since coming to power of the Jacobins of the situation at the front again changed. New generals Peshegryu and Ghosh, managed to reverse the situation and after the bloody clashes. To the end of the year pushed the Prussian army of the Rhine. In 1794, Mr.. there were two fierce battle Kaiserslautern. The second battle ended with the defeat Prussians. King was not too happy that became involved in this endless war. The fighting has demanded great expense, yet the treasury was empty, and Friedrich Wilhelm began to seek peace. In October, he entered into negotiations with the French Government. In April 1795, Mr.. Basel was signed a peace treaty, under which the Prussian king had agreed to cede to France the left bank of the Rhine.
In parallel with this war in the east began another partition of Poland. Immediately after the battle of Valmy Friedrich Wilhelm said Russia and Austria, which will continue the war in France only if he receives compensation from the Polish lands. Catherine II and Franz Joseph did not object, and in 1792, Mr.. Prussian corps joined in Wielkopolska. In January 1793, Mr.. agreement was signed on the second section. Prussia received Danzig, Thorn, Great Poland, Poznan and Gniezno. When the Polish insurrection, the Prussians in April 1794, Mr.. joined Krakow. In September, the king went up to Warsaw, but the case ended in a bombardment of the city (Warsaw, in early November, after a fierce battle took a Russian army of Suvorov.) In October 1795, Mr.. Russia, Austria and Prussia concluded a treaty on the third section of Poland. Friedrich received while the western part of Warsaw and Krakow Province.