Friedrich Wilhelm IV( King of Prussia)
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Biography Friedrich Wilhelm IV
Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795-1861), King of Prussia since 1840, from the Hohenzollern dynasty. Since 1857 in connection with mental illness away from public affairs. Assumed the throne shortly before the 1848 revolution. In the early years of his reign, flirted with liberalism, announced an amnesty for many political criminals and softened the censorship regime. However, the rise of social movement in the 40-ies pushed him on the path of his predecessor, the reaction. When the revolution broke out in 1848, the King at first did not want to make any concessions, and only under the pressure of the masses had to agree to some reforms. In 1849, Mr.. Frankfort National Assembly proposed to the king's crown Germanic United States, but he refused, saying: "Hohenzollern could not take the crown from the hands of the revolutionary assembly.
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. Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795-1861) - King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty, who ruled in 1840-1861 he
. Son of Frederick William III and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Wife: since 1823, Mr.. Elizabeth, daughter of King Maximilian of Bavaria 1 (genus. 1801 g. 1873 g.).
Genus. October 15. Dated 1795. + January 2, 1861
Friedrich Wilhelm was endowed by nature multilateral talent, passionate eloquence, vivid, restless mind, and spirit of the disturbing. He received an excellent education, he loved art, was an ardent admirer of the Middle Ages, as well as an ardent follower of Haller and Stahl. His nervous nature could find no satisfaction in the quiet flow of public affairs. Having become king, he lived in a kind of excitement, piling one project to another and soon put away in the governance of the country to confusion and anarchy.
The revolution, which began in February 1848. France and then spread to Germany, led by Friedrich Wilhelm in complete disarray. Generally, . he was not hostile to liberal ideas and freedom, . but I understood them quite unique: Being by nature an extreme optimist, . He was convinced, . that between the sovereign - the representative of God on earth - and the people there are very fate of the intended agreement, . and called traitors all those, . who do not worship freely in front of his decisions,
. So he was against all institutions and laws that limit the royal power. Only 18 of March, when the excitement in the capital had reached dangerous levels, Friedrich Wilhelm had made concessions and issued a manifesto which promised to immediately convene the Diet, and introduce a constitution. But it was too late. On the same day of clashes with troops of citizens. Berlin was covered with barricades. Preponderance of forces remained on the side of the Army. If the battle continued the next day, the victory of troops would certainly. However, the nerves could not stand the King. At night, when there were fights, Friedrich Wilhelm made an appeal to his' dear Berliners "and promised to remove troops from the city, as soon as the rebels abandoned the barricades. The next day, the troops retreated from the capital. Berlin was in the power of the people. The corpses of the fallen victims pulled down into the courtyard of the castle. Then the crowd with furious cries become a matter of the King. Pale, sick, haggard, he went to the balcony on the arm of Queen Elizabeth and bowed to the Murdered. March 21 surrounded by princes, generals and ministers of the king rode through the city with a black-red-gold armband. On the same day in his manifesto, he declared that warmly welcomes the unification of German states and that from now on 'Prussia is merged with Germany'. This statement was greeted with joy by all German patriots. On the part of Friedrich Wilhelm of his manifesto was nothing more than a phrase, but soon he actually had to prove their commitment to the German idea of. When in April begun anti-Danish riots in Schleswig and Holstein, he was at the request of the patriots should have declared war on Denmark, but little sympathy with the insurgents (in which he saw above all the revolutionaries, and only then the Germans). Hostilities were sluggish, and after a short time under pressure from European powers, the king signed a truce.
In December 1848. Frederick William issued a liberal constitution, abolished a special court and imposed the jury. In April 1849, . once chosen based on the Constitution, the House began to encroach on the rights of the King, . Friedrich Wilhelm dismissed her and introduced more stringent, . 'three-class' system of elections, . the furnishing prosperous segments of the population considerable advantage in the elections,
. Elected on the basis of this law the Diet was already completely obedient to the King. But then within a few months, Friedrich Wilhelm delayed final approval granted by their constitutions, as it is, he said, was too radical. Gradually, it has been removed from the article on freedom of the press, the soldiers swearing allegiance to the constitution and the rules of the House to abolish existing taxes. For the Government had retained the right to issue decrees having the force of law. Only then, in 1850, not without chagrin, the king swore allegiance to the Constitution.
Meanwhile, in March 1849. Germanic Frankfurt National Assembly has offered the crown of Germany's Friedrich Wilhelm. But the king refused to accept the supreme authority from the hands of the liberals. 'This issue must be resolved through negotiations with equal to me - he wrote in one letter - and the democrats do not have to talk: against them can be sent only a soldier! " At this time Friedrich Wilhelm was sincere. When some time after the uprising broke out again in some of the Germanic principalities - and the most powerful of them in Baden - king gladly sent the Prussian troops to restore order. Suppression of the uprising in Baden in May-July 1849. Germany revolution is over.
However, the turmoil of these years have not been to the Friedrich Wilhelm trace.. His health has deteriorated significantly, mental instability has passed into insanity. In 1857, Mr.. King suffered several attacks of insanity, finally destroyed his mind and will. In 1858, Mr.. Friedrich Wilhelm had to transfer the cases of government to his brother William.