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TAMARA

( regent Georgia)

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Biography TAMARA
Tamara (1178-1213). In 1184, after the death of George III-th, Tamar became the sole ruler of Georgia. For the first time in the history of Georgia to the throne came a woman. The feudal lords deemed opportune moment to recover lost when David Agmashenebeli and George III of human. They have a young queen with the removal of appointed officials nizkorodnyh George III. Tamar was forced to cede to them.

Shortly mechurchletuhutses (Treasurer) Kutlu Arslan presented its reorganization plan drawn up by the state management and limitations on royal power: in Isani near the royal palace of a long-wives to be based t. n. "Kara-vie" - the cathedral, which must be addressed, whether the main GP dew-governance, but only reported to be the queen of the decision and it is a long-zhna was "to enforce the re-Shae-tion. Implementation of similar article Master Plan implied a sharp restriction of royal power and, of course, the Queen Tamar could not take it. She ordered the arrest Kutlu Arslan. However, he had plenty of supporters of the highest urban elite, who demanded his immediate liberation-tion, otherwise they threatened armed attack.

. Tamar released Kutlu Arslan, and pos-Lal to his followers to negotiate two respectable ladies: Kravai Dzhakeli and Hvashak clatter
. The negotiations have borne fruit: the idea of creating a "Qarawy" failed, but the right Darbaza - the king's council were expanded. From now on all the important decision-tion took the queen "in unity and with the consent of the Darboux-zi".

The crucial issue was the choice of a husband to Tamar, as he had become the most influential person in the kingdom after the queen. According to the chronicler, at a meeting of the Emir of Kartli and Tbilisi called the pretender to the hand Tamar - the son of Grand Duke Andrei Bogolyubsky - Yuri.

For Yuri was sent to Tbilisi merchant Zankan Zorababeli. In 1185, Yuri, nicknamed Georgians George of Russia, was brought to Georgia and married to Tamar. Tamar herself was against such a sudden marriage. It is believed that the first should study well the personality of Yuri, but she still had to give the decision Darbaza. Part of the feudal lords were against Yuri, as was their candidate.. In 1187 the Queen divorced and George was expelled from Russia, Georgia. A year later, Tamar's second married David Soslan brought up at the Georgian court aunt Tamar - Rusudan. According Vakhushti Bagram-thiones, David was a descendant of Demeter, the son of George I-go on the paternal side, T. e. was of the Bagration. Meanwhile, George Russ was not going to put up with their lot. He twice tried to return to Georgia. Apparently, he had a lot of supporters here, particularly in West and South Georgia. Part of the big feudal lords supported George and in 1191 rebelled against the Tamar. The well-rebels caught him king in Geguti and then opposed the Tamar. In this extremely difficult time, the queen was able to rally his supporters with them in power routed the rebels. Edinomysh-liege Jury were dismissed from high office and deprived estates. In 1193 George of Russia again attempted to return to Georgia. This time he came from Ehret, but no one supported him and he suffered a final defeat.

The political situation inside the country was arranged. Now the queen Tamar took up the external affairs. By this time, especially increased ruler of Azerbaijan atabag Abu Bakr. In 1195 in Shamkhor battle Georgians inflicted a severe defeat. Especially distinguished brothers Shalva and Ivane Ahaltsi-heli. Shalva seized the banner of the caliph, which was then donated Gelati Monastery. This victory was indicative of the power of the Georgian state.

Georgians have attached to his kingdom significant Armenian cities - Dvin and Ani.

Strengthening Georgia's haunted Govern-six Muslim countries. Among them was Rumsky Sultan Rukn ad-Din, have long been intending to march to Georgia. The Georgian army under the command of David Soslan marched against the enemy. The Queen herself held up army Vardzia, and stayed there all the time praying.

In 1202 at the Battle of Basiani Georgians won a brilliant victory over the enemy numer-lennym. In battle, distinguished himself Wal-va Akhaltsikheli, Zakaria and Ivane Mhara-grdzeli. Georgians went to a big mining and many prisoners. Taken prisoner's brother Rukn ad-Din was sold to the queen for Losha-dinuyu horseshoe.

Defeat Rukn ad-Din gave the opportunity Tamar pursue an active policy in the south-west. In 1204, the Georgian-mechanical forces captured significant for strategic city-fortress of Kars.

The weakening of the Byzantine Empire, open-lo Georgian way to the south-eastern preg-din of the Black Sea. This area was mainly inhabited by tribes of Georgian origin. Georgian troops entered the city at-sea: Trebizond, Limni, Samsun, Sinop, Kerasunt, Kotioru, Geraki-leu. Obra-pyridine Trapizonskaya empire, headed by the educated in Georgia representative may house Comneni (deposed from impe-ratorskogo throne in Byzantium) Alexis Com-nen. Trapizonskaya empire was in the sphere of influence in Georgia.

In 1206, David died Soslan. In the same year Queen Tamar seated on the throne co-regent with her son George-Lasha.

In 1210 Zakaria Mhargrdzeli invited the queen to make a trip to Iran. The campaign was particularly successful: the Georgians have a lot of cities and penetrated deep into Iran. Weighed big booty army could not move further forward and turned back.

. This campaign has once again demonstrated the military power of Georgia.

. In 1213, Queen Tamar died (there are versions that she died in 1207 or in 1210 years)
. As noted chronicler of the era Tamar, she looked like, in Ronen Gelati. There is also a view that later her ashes were transported to Jerusalem Cross Monastery.

Georgian church tagging Tamar a saint and the day of remembrance set 1 (14) May.


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