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Biography TSERETELI Irakli
Irakli Tsereteli (20 Nov.. 1881, Kutaisi - May 21, 1959, New York). From an impoverished old noble family, the son of G.E. Tsereteli - a publicist, social and political activist. Schoolboy met narodnich. and Marxist, ideas. In 1900 he entered the Juridical. Dept., Moscow. Zap. In 1901, before. Executive Committee studench. org-tion of Moscow, for participation in the student movement, among others exiled to Vost. Siberia, released in 1903. Returning to the Caucasus, joined RSDLP, tsp. Tiflis. to-ta after the 2 nd Congress of the Party (1903), Menshevik, Chapter. red. w. Kvali ( "Furrow"). In the spring of 1904, fleeing from arrest, went to Berlin, enrolled in univ. Who was seriously ill with tuberculosis, in 1905 he returned to Kutaisi. In 1907 elected Minister. 2 nd State. Duma, member of. its RGM. Commission before. c-d. fraction. Affairs. 5-th (London) Party Congress (1907). In June 1907, after the dissolution of the Duma, as a result tretiyunskogo coup, was sentenced to 5 years in prison, commuted for health 6 years in prison, followed by settlement in Vost. Siberia. In early. 1-st world. War "internationalist."

After the February. Revolution of 1917 helped create the K-ta Societies. org-ment of the RD, the Military Organization of Irkutsk on March 19 he returned to Petrograd. Became a member of the executive committee of the Petrograd. Council. By this time, defined as "the roar. Defencist ". 21-22 March, this position was involved in the development of relations Petrograd. Council to the question of war and peace. At Vseros. Meeting of Councils (March 29 - April 3.) made a report on the attitude to war. The adoption of his proposal, the resolution grew. Democrats call to mobilize all the forces of the country to strengthen the front and rear 'I think that the key end of the war Joint. efforts of the socialists in the belligerent countries, which tried to organize the Stockholm Internat. Conf. April 4. at a meeting of SA-d. (Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, the non-factionalism) called for the convening of the general-partner. Congress. Served with sharp criticism in April. abstracts VI. Lenin. their center, the idea of Russia's transition to socialism. Supporter of the coalition with the bourgeoisie. April 27. spoke at the meeting of Ministers. State. Duma convocations of all 4: "We tell people: so bourgeois, so Liability. authority of the bourgeoisie - Time. pr-in, but we add: it is the representatives of the bourgeoisie, to-rye on the general Dem. platform agreed to defend Russian. freedom with democracy ... "(Rev-tion 1917, t. 2,. 77). May 5 decision of the Petrograd. Council introduced during the RNC. Prospect of (min. Posts and Telegraphs). 7 May Vseros. Conf. Menshevik. and combined. org-tion said: "I have always been opposed to the participation of socialists in a bourgeois government ... The harder I had to get up to present my position ... In the course of the revolution revealed, . that the bourgeoisie was unable to allocate from its midst the power, . that would be strong enough and courageous, . and to expand and strengthen the cause of revolution within the country and at the same time to democratize the foreign policy ", describing the rising in March - April,
. crisis ACCESSED. Prospect Island, Tsereteli continued: "The Government has set us a choice: either it goes or we will enter into its structure, so that together make the revolution ... The power actually went out and before us was the choice: either the seizure of power by the Soviets, or joining the composed on the basis of the Provisional Revolutionary pritelstvo. At first we could not go, . because then we would have committed an error, . from which once warned another Engels, . spoke about the tragic situation of the proletariat, . seized power in their hands, . when there are no objective conditions for the implementation of the proletarian program ..,
. After that, we had only one thing - enter into a Provisional Revolutionary Government. Council recognized this need and sent us to the Provisional Government "(" Working paper, 1917, 9 May). From an orthodox Marxist and a born peacemaker went great specialist mezhdupartiynoy Technology (Milyukov PN, Memoirs of State. leader, New York, 1982,. 374). May 22 Provisional. Prospect of seconded MM. Skobelev and Tsereteli in Kronstadt, tk. its Board RNC announced May 17 that does not recognize the Provisional. pr-in: negotiations concluded agreement.

June 4 Tsereteli accountable 1 st All-Russia. Congress of Soviets of the RDA of pr-va: denied the possibility of a separate peace, spoke of the need to bring the army in combat readiness, so that she, "... if this proves necessary, could go on the offensive" (1 st Congress of Soviets, " t. 1,. 60). justified the need for unity of all forces to prevent the collapse of state-and Civil Society. war, argued that "... Russia is not his political party, to the paradise-like to say: let the power in our hands ..." (ibid.,. 65). At replica VI. Lenin "There!" Tsereteli replied that the government should be strong enough, "... to confront those who decided to experiment, dangerous for the fate of Revolution of ..." (ibid.,. 66). June 9, objecting L.D. Trotsky argued that the position of the Bolsheviks "... a weak point in our Revolution of. Now the counter-tion in direct combat is not terrible. But it is our fortress Revolution of can break through these gates "(ibid.,. 361). Elected member of. INEC, member. Prose. VTsIK. 11 June Joint. meeting of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd. Council and Prose. Congress of the Soviets about the impending June 10 demonstration, said: "The Bolsheviks must disarm .- We can not leave guns in their hands and arms, charms, we will not allow" ( "Roar-tion 1917, t. 3. with. 57). June 28, together with the MI. Tereshchenko arrived in Kiev (29 June arrived and п-.пг. Kerensky) for talks with Center. Rada after. when, in addition to previously made claims kult.-th. autonomy, there were statements about the need th Terra. autonomy and the creation ukr. th. Army; compromise decision was reached. Cadet Ministers, in protest against the "Declaration of Provisional. Prospect Island to Ukr. Rada (2 July), came out of the Prospect Island. In Joint. meetings of the Central Executive Committee and the RDA Board Vseros. Council KD, gathered in a government, crisis, July 3, Tsereteli said in the report, that the slogan "All Power to the Soviets!" fatal to the Revolution of July 4, that if in Petrograd Council seize power, "the province will go against us". (At night, NS. Chkheidze and Tsereteli suggested the newspapers not to publish speculation about Lenin's spying for Germany.) Adopted in July 7 report Tsereteli resolution stated: "The dramatic change in the mood of the masses, caused by the adventurism armament. offensive against the Provisional. pr-va-supported bodies roar. democracy, an attempt to-Rui prepared anarcho-Bolshevik. elements and operating under their flag of the dark forces, the provocateurs and the Black Hundreds, put before the country of operation. risk of the counter-tion "(ibid., t. 3,. 323).

July 8 temporarily concurrently appointed min. ext. Affairs. July 13 signed an executive order banning all rallies and street meetings in Petrograd. 18 July, VM. Chernov succeeded in making the law on elections to the inaugural. Coll. amendment depriving members of the Romanov dynasty izbirat-human. July 24 came from the times. Prospect Island to focus on the work of the Council. In August. Delegate Kutuzovsky. Party Congress, elected member of. RSDLP (o). Speaking on August 19. the Congress a report Polit, position and tasks of the Party, stated that "the time has come terroristich. policies for preventing CET. War and the expansion of the front "(ibid., t. 4,. 74). August 27. joint meeting of the Central Executive Committee and the RDA Board Vseros. Council adopted the proposed KD C Resolution: "Providing t. Kerensky formation Prospect Island, the center, the task to-cerned must be the most decided, the fight against conspiracy gene. Kornilov, the CEC and the RNC Executive Committee of the Council KD promise pr-woo the most energetic. support in this struggle "(ibid.,. 105). Following the August 31. Petrograd. By Bolshevik. resolution on the "power" to protest along with all the SR-Menshevik. Bureau Petrograd. Council, Sep 6. Tsereteli resigned. Sep 14. on Dem. meeting argued that the homogeneous Dem. power can not solve the challenges ahead, defended the coalition with the Cadets, claimed that over L.G. Kornilov went only avantyuristich. elements of medium and big bourgeoisie, insisted on the accountability ACCESSED. Prospect Island being developed by the Pre-Parliament. Sep 24. meeting of representatives of the roar. democracy and the bourgeoisie adopted the proposal Tsereteli called the Pre-Parliament "of the Provisional. By Ros. Republic. He played for the transfer of land to the peasants, but only to establish. Coll., Convening to-cerned, in his view, democracy. force unforgivable delayed.

October. roar-tion met with hostility. 10 Nov.. at a meeting of the Council Zemstvos and cities in the report "On the current situation, saying:" ... the price of losing its popularity, we tried to prevent the masses from this bloody training of ... " (ibid., t. 6,. 117): In his proposal, adopted by resolution affirmed the need to proceed "to the creation Dem. center, to-ing must be opposed by the usurpers of power ... "(ibid.,. 124). 12 Nov.. Bureau of the CEC 1-th convocation, did not recognize the Owls, power, proposed to rely on the Caucasus, Siberia and the Ukraine, where there is a "healthy elements that do not recognize the power of the Bolsheviks, and can recreate the state. life "(ibid.. with. 132). December 7. the Congress RSDLP (United) was elected to the CC.

January 5. 1918 at the inaugural meeting. Coll. said: "Roar-tion in Russia alone - it started in Feb.. days, she experienced a severe test, but the most severe test, it is experiencing at the moment. On her shoulders bear a burden, to paradise-can crush it to a long life ... done ... division of Russia into two irreconcilable camps ... Line grazhd. War has passed through the heart of democracy "(" to establish. Coll., "With. 47). Despite the intransigence and sharpness in controversy for his political issues, celebrated the nobility of his contemporaries Tsereteli and personal charisma that inspires respect for him in large societies, circles. VI. Lenin, after the murder on January 7. F.F. Kokoshkina and AI. Shingaryov, indirectly advised Tsereteli go to Georgia (see: Denike YP, IG. Tsereteli, "New Journal", 1959,? 57,. 284). Returning to Tiflis, still trying to actively participate in his political life, fought against the conclusion of the Brest Peace Treaty. Think that Georgia can not withstand alone the Bolshevik. Russia, advocated unification zakavk. peoples: "... if it is destroyed inside. the unity of the peoples of the Caucasus, we will be crushed "(" Speech ", t. 2,. 100-01). After the collapse of Zakavk. Federation Tsereteli seen Ones, protection of small nations in the Intern. democracy (ibid.,. 121). Tsp. National executive committee. Council of Georgia, to-ing from 25 May to his proposal became known as the Parliament, on May 26 participated in a decision on the proclamation of an independent Georgia. Dem. republic.

In Feb.. 1919 - April. 1920 tsp. Georgian delegation at the Versailles, and then San Remskoy Conference. Since 1921 in exile in France since 1940 in the U.S.. The representative of Georgia. c-d. in Internat. Sots. Bureau, member of. executive committee of the 2 nd International; opponent of Bolshevism, the author of works on the participants and the problem of SM-d. movement.

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