Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (Gobineau)( French sociologist, writer and publicist)
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Biography Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (Gobineau)
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau, (Gobineau), (1816-1882); French sociologist, writer and publicist, one of the founders of the racist theories and racial-anthropological school in sociology. Born July 14, 1816 in Paris. In 1849-77 the Foreign Service. Most work on the inequality of human races "(1853-1855) tried to justify the existence of the ruling elite and advanced the theory, . for which inequality, . associated with racial differences, . and the resulting struggle races are the driving force behind the development of peoples,
. According to Gobineau, the most capable of cultural development is the white (Aryan) race, especially the Germany branch. In an effort to expand its influence, the Aryan race is mixed with other races, thus reducing its capacity and culture. This leads to the loss of the higher races of dominance and the emergence of democracy, which Gobineau considered the worst form of state.
Hitler and other Nazi ideology borrowed and adapted to their own philosophical concepts, many of the theory of Gobineau in order to justify the "right" of the Germans to dominate the world. Hitler: "All human culture, all the achievements of art, science and technology, which we are witnessing today is - the fruits of creativity Aryans ... He [Aryan] - Prometheus of mankind, . with a light brow which at all times flew sparks of genius, . fanning the fires of knowledge, . illuminates the gloomy darkness of ignorance, . that allowed a man to rise above the other creatures of the earth ... "Himmler:" We believe, . as long as people live on earth, . law of history is the struggle between humans and subhuman,
. Right to race is a strong determinant of justice ". Hitler: "If we divide mankind into three categories: creators of culture, its carriers and destroyers, the representative of the first should be considered only Aryans ... The German people - an embodiment of the merits of the Aryan race, it is intended as a master race to subdue the less valuable people, resorting to any means of coercion ... Let him who wants to live, comes into the fight, and he who does not want to fight in this world of eternal struggle do not deserve the right to life ".
RI-a. N. was subjected to a. 19 - 20 in. exhaustive criticism, an absolute majority of its theory. provisions has been refuted, proved arbitrariness and value-superstitious background of these theses and concepts like 'race', 'Aryan race', 'purity of race', the link between physical and anatomical. racial characteristics and intellectual abilities, etc.. It was shown that cultural differences between races are not determined Physiol. racial factors, and environment in a swarm, they developed. Important role played in this criticism of Boas, F. Myrdal, S. Heng-Kinsey, T. Weitz, S. Ossovsky etc.. Dzh.Haksli suggested using instead the concept of 'race' concept 'of ethnic. group '. However, in lane. gender. 20 in. ideas and myths, and R.. N. entrenched in Germany and formed the basis of the racist doctrines of National Socialism.