Denis Diderot( writer)
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Biography Denis Diderot
Denis Diderot (1713-1784). "Salon" opens a whole epoch in the history of plastic arts, "- claimed the modern researcher aesthetic views D. Diderot. But this work did not always mentioned in a number of major works of French thinkers - is so vast, well-rounded, truly encyclopedic, his legacy. The scientist, writer and journalist, organizer and one of the leading authors of the renowned "Encyclopaedia of Science, Arts and Crafts," prepared the minds of the French Revolution, Diderot affected almost all spheres of cultural life of his time. Literature, theater, painting - only one of many areas in which he worked as a theorist, and partly as a practitioner - a playwright, author of pictures for articles in "Encyclopedia". Yet "salons" - elegant little volumes, . produced from 1759 till 1781, . for a period of two years, . which corresponded to the periodicity of the Paris art exhibitions with this name, . not lost in the avalanche of his articles, . philosophical treatises, . stories, . novels, . plays.,
. The publication, conceived one of the companions of Diderot as a review, informing the public, has become under his pen in the cycle of brilliant essays, free form, trusting in tone, conversational, casual like a friendly conversation, and thoughtful
. Turning to the major problems not only in contemporary art and aesthetics, . but also in public life, . "Beauty" became a propaganda tool of the new world view, . outlook of the Third Estate, . strove to create and his art, . inspired by the democratic morality,
. Aesthetics became the herald of a Diderot.
. The son of a provincial artisan studied at the Jesuit college, . preparing for an ecclesiastical career, . but, . betraying the hopes of native, . deprived of their support, . he is turning his destiny - goes to Paris, . embarking on the path of journalism, . struggle, . paying for political and religious freethinking imprisonment in Vincennes Castle (1749).,
. From the work on the English translation are born great idea Encyclopedias, implemented with the participation of D'Alembert, Diderot, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Holbach from 1761 to 1780
. Among the many articles, written by the initiator of the publication, and the article "Beautiful" (1751), written by Denis Diderot, from the standpoint of materialism. As the output volumes of the Encyclopedia, as the appearance of brilliant literary and philosophical works of Diderot authority strengthened not only in the circle of friends. He became one of the great thinkers. In an attempt to pass for 'enlightened monarch' Catherine enters into correspondence with 'fashionable' philosopher, invited him to Russia. Arriving in St. Petersburg in 1773, the philosopher receives a strong election to the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Imperial Academy of Arts. He wrote the best portrait painter of Russia D. Levitsky. (This is only to publish translations of works by its correspondent in Russia and the companion Catherine in no hurry.)
. Bourgeois ideology of the revolution, educator-materialist Diderot declares that art-'podrazhanie nature ', including the concept of nature and social life
. One of the fundamental ideas of the French Enlightenment philosophy, determinism, and gets in his aesthetics. Creativity of the artist due to the life of society, there is no immutable standards of beauty, ideals change with the movement of history. Therefore, the phenomenon of contemporary art, Diderot viewed not only as a theoretician, but as a critic and advocate of a new, vital in the ideological struggle. A 'fair' in 1765 was attached paper 'Experiments on art', . which most clearly establishes the democratic position Diderot: 'Art has the task of perpetuating the great and beautiful act, . expose the alleged virtues, . respected brand and vice terrify tyrants',
. From this position, and the artist is drawn to the assessment of contemporary art. Hence his hostility to the canons of classicism with the preceding, XVII century, the ideological core of which was the glorification of absolutism. Hence, too, his condemnation of the artist's rococo, as F. Bush, in a hedonistic, exquisite delicacy of painting which he saw the embodiment of aristocratic immorality, degradation, vice, social evil.
Very significant in the current revision of Diderot's aesthetic hierarchy of genres. It strongly highlights the landscape and genre painting. His heroes in contemporary art are artists M. Burns, J.-B. Chardin and Jean-B. Grez. Landscapes Bern had retained the admiration of the browser Salons, inspiring criticism not only on the analytical analysis, but also on the poetic sketch, which is one of the best examples of fiction by Diderot.
. With all rebellion Diderot, . course, . product of the French culture of his age, . and distinguish the subtle heightened perception of form, . plastics, . sensory perception of pictorial elements, . But in assessing the work he uses a new scale of values, . saying: 'There is no such product, . which would have existed only for the eyes or ears,
. Exclude from the works of his moral idea meant to deprive him of beauty '. High sample harmonious unity of perfect plasticity and humanistic ideological significance of the image is a Chardin, had won strong support Diderot.
. Theoreticians and practitioners of the new bourgeois drama, in which emerged the features of the nascent sentimentalism, his aesthetic was particularly close to the rebellious third estate
. was preparing a revolution, "Diderot is too close to a trend in painting Dream
. Who else but the artist, answer the call of the philosopher: 'Above the doors of studios should be the inscription:' Here, every unhappy find eyes that weep. "
. In actuality emphasized aesthetic manifestos and critical educators, their ideas were addressed in the future, they have sown the seeds for tomorrow's harvest
. The impact of education aesthetics significantly during most of the XIX century. The immediate response of the views found in the aesthetics of Goethe, Diderot. The researchers note the influence of Diderot on the works of the German theorist of Romanticism F. Schlegel. It would be difficult or folded romantic relationship with their predecessors, their ideology, enlightenment was an inevitable step in the further development of thought.
. His aesthetic views of Diderot expressed not only in treatises and brilliant in style and fascinating to read an essay ( 'Beauty'), but also in the dialogues, novels ( "Rameau's Nephew ', devoted to problems of the theater)
. This syncretism, the fusion of the philosophical works of artistic creativity may be one reason that even now his work is not gone unchallenged in power in academia, but read, and read with great interest.