Charles V the Wise( The King of France)
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Biography Charles V the Wise
Charles V the Wise (1337-1380) - King of France from the kind of Valois, who ruled in 1364-1380 he. Son of John II and Judith Luxembourg.
Wife: from 1350 g. Jeanne, the daughter of the Duke of Bourbon Peter I (genus. 1338 g. + 1377).
Born in 1337, Mr.. 16 Sep. 1380.
Carl seemed the complete opposite of his father. He was thin, pale, weakness, had a long face and sunken cheeks. Man serious and cautious, he hostile attitude to all kinds of chimeras. He was constantly accused of lacking courage, because he never sought to participate in battles, and if they appear randomly on the battlefield, it showed no knightly qualities. Thus, in 1356, Mr.. Charles was with his father at the Battle of Poitiers, but hastily left at the first sign of defeat. John then captured, and from that time on the shoulders of the nineteen-Dauphin went to all the public concerns. From the very first steps he faced enormous challenges: the army was defeated, the treasury is empty, a country ravaged by years of war. And while Charles managed to conclude a truce for two years, he saw no possibility to get out of difficulty without the aid of the States General. Shortly after the defeat, 16 October, brought together representatives from Dauphin estates in the hope of getting money from them to pay ransom for the king and military expenditures. But the States, led by the Parisian clothier Marseille and Lansky Bishop Robert Le Kock, did not agree to give the king money without a new political concessions. Alarmed Dauphin dismissed deputies. However, the situation is hopeless forced him to the next year to apply the same means. Representatives of the estates met in early February 1357, adjusted more aggressively than before. Marcel urged the Parisians to take up arms; artisans left their jobs and vigorously supported the deputies. March 3 States have submitted their requirements set out in the form of so-called the Great Ordinance. They announced the imposition of taxes on income of the clergy and nobility, as well as urban and rural populations, but for it demanded many concessions, greatly limiting the power of the Dauphin.
Charles was forced to take all their demands. He has removed control 22 of its officials and agreed that the deputies formed a commission of 36 people with the widest powers. States actually took power in their hands; Dauphin came under the tutelage of the commission members, and administration of the state turned to Marcel Ile-Koku. February 22, 1358, Mr.. Crowds of people, headed by Marcel stormed the royal palace and in front of Charles killed his advisers - the marshals of Champagne and Normandy, accused Marcel that they badly affect the Dauphin. Charles and his courtiers in solidarity with the people should have to wear red and blue hats.
This demonstration of the power produced, however, a bad impression on the province and the nobility. From the cities of Amiens and Laon only support capital. Charles decided that could count against the Parisians in the province. In March, he fled from Paris to Compiegne. At this time the north of France broke the powerful peasant uprising, known in history as Jacquerie. Over a hundred locks were turned into piles of ashes, and their inhabitants put to a painful death. Dauphin and his wife, sister and many great ladies took refuge from the raging mob in one of the islands of the Marne. A large detachment rebels pursued him and there. Charles and his companion were besieged in one of the fortified houses and were in dire straits when unexpected help has saved them from massacre. Count Gaston de Foix and Captain Bush, along with his soldiers suddenly attacked and killed the peasants large number of them. At the same time, Karl, King of Navarre, defeating a large group of peasants in the Beauvais. By mid-June had been wiped out up to 20 thousand rebels and the rebellion began to wane.
Carl, getting rid of a terrible danger, gathered troops approached Paris and cut off food deliveries. As usual in such cases, the city began disputing parties. On the night of August 1, between supporters and opponents of Marseilles fighting broke out in which Marseille was killed. His enemies have invited Charles to return to the capital. August 3 Dauphin entered Paris, welcomed by shouts of joy of the people. He graciously responded to citizens, but at the same time ordered to seize all the instigators of the uprising, who had not managed to escape, and immediately execute them. The massacre was brutal, but short. Already on August 10, Karl announced an amnesty. This week he managed to partially replenish its treasury confiscated property of those executed. Then he went against the Dauphin Charles of Navarre, who during the uprising led the defense of Paris, and besieged him in Melun. August 21, 1359, Mr.. Navarrese king was forced to conclude a peace treaty with Pontoise Dauphin. Then Karl declared illegal all decisions of the States General, concerning the limitation of royal power, and restored in full their powers. After three years of struggle he managed to overcome most of the internal difficulties and to subdue unrest. It remained to stop foreign war. In March 1360, Mr.. Englishmen came to Paris and began his siege. The whole country around the capital was terribly devastated. In April in the village of Bray-tini, negotiations began. In May a truce was arranged, and in October, John signed a final peace. Conditions. Have been very hard for France: Edward renounced claims to the French throne, but joined his kingdom province Saintonge, Biggor, Limousin, Kersee, Poitou, Ponthieu and Guyenne. For the release of John was appointed a ransom of 3 million gold crowns. Carl agreed to accept this treaty, as worn kingdom no longer had the strength to continue the war. But, obviously, he was already not going to do it.
Four years after this sad event, King John died in captivity, the British. Charles inherited after the royal power, which actually had several years. He was a wise and prudent sovereign and had the highest concept of royal duty. Like his ancestor, St. Louis, he was noted for gentleness and sincere piety. However, there was nothing chivalrous: tournaments, duels, war is not occupied his. Carl spent time in the work of serious reflection, meetings, wearisome walks and interviews of scientists. Like any monarch of modern times, Karl pay particular attention to finance, which had inherited from his father in the disordered state. To remedy the situation, he introduced a series of new taxes, and he did it first without the approval of the States General, and then - contrary to their direct ban. The money he spent very thoughtfully and purposefully, avoiding unnecessary costs, imposed strict reporting and monitoring the collection and expenditure of money. He tried to create a good mercenary army and restore the Royal Navy. This was all the more necessary that the peace with England lasted eight years, but peace with Charles of Navarre, and even less. The king himself was a man of poor health, he did not like military labor and was a bad military commander. Therefore, this finding was for him, Bertrand du-Hecla, poor bretansky knight, whom he had for his exceptional talent made the first commander. After the death of the Duke of Burgundy, King of Navarre himself demanded his possession, ns, John gave them to his son Philip. In 1362, Mr.. Evil Karl decided to seize the power of the inheritance of Burgundy, but received a firm rebuff: in spring 1364, Mr.. du-Hecla Navarre defeated at the Battle of Kotrelev and forced their king to make peace.
. Four of the following year, Karl persistently and methodically preparing for war with Britain. The break occurred in 1368, after the Prince of Wales, who was entrusted with the management of continental possessions, intended to tax their subjects podymnym tax (this lodge was levied on each residential buildings). Nobles and the cities conquered by the provinces rebelled against this innovation and appealed for support from the French king. Charles demanded that the Black Prince was in Paris at the court of peers and responded to the complaints of his subjects. Enraged by the Prince replied that he had come to Paris, but with an iron helmet on his head and having under his early 60's of thousands of soldiers. Hostilities resumed in 1369, Mr.. Karl du-Hecla appointed constable and chief of the entire French army. This skilful general to avoid decisive battles, but has created many difficulties for the British. He arranged the ambush, maneuvered and attacked the enemy when they least expected it. In 1370, Mr.. He defeated the British at Ponvallena. In the same year, the Black Prince, overcome serious illness, sailed for England. Deprived of their famous commander, the British began to suffer one defeat after another. Du Hecla again seized the southern provinces and Poitou. In 1372, Mr.. were taken of La Rochelle, Moncontour, Poitiers, Tuars and several other major cities. In 1373, Mr.. Carl recognized the power of all Brittany, except a few coastal cities. In 1374, Mr.. du-Hecla and the Duke of Anjou invaded Gascony, and took about 50 locks. In 1375, Mr.. brokered truce was pope for two years. By this time in the hands of the British leaving only Calais, Bayonne, Bordeaux and a few locks on the Dordogne.
Revived in 1378, the war was not so successful. Bretansky Duke of Montfort, who had fought on the side of the British, managed to regain most of their possessions. The King of Navarre was also made on the side of Britain. All this is promised in the subsequent years of hard struggle, but Charles did not live up to the denouement. He died relatively young man, but managed to return to France, almost all possessions lost during the years of his childhood and adolescence.