Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (Lavoisier)( French chemist)
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Biography Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (Lavoisier)
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was born in a family attorney on Aug. 28, 1743. Initial education he received at the College Mazarin.
On leaving college he entered the Faculty of Law. In the 1763-meters, he received a bachelor's degree in the next year - Bachelor of Laws.
. Without abandoning his law studies, he studied mathematics, astronomy, botany, mineralogy, chemistry.
. In 1768, when Lavoisier was 25 years old, he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
. In 1769 an event took place in the future predetermined the tragic end of a scientist
. Lavoisier joined General relegated to a Friend Farmer General Bodoni, had yielded to him a third of their income.
. "Ferme generale" was a society of financiers, which gave way to the state for a certain fee collection of indirect taxes (wine, tobacco, salt, customs duties and serfs)
. -Farmers hated. Nobody believed in their honesty. Such was the general opinion on the establishment, which became a member of the Lavoisier.
Lavoisier belongs to a series of brilliant discoveries, but almost all of them were made independently by other scientists. Oxygen, for example, open Baeyens and Priestley and Scheele to Lavoisier, regardless of the first three, the opening of the water was attributed, except Lavoisier, Cavendish, Watt and Monge.
First Lavoisier develops research method. The scientist puts the experience. Within 101 days overtakes water in a closed apparatus. The water evaporates, it cools, returns to the receiver, again evaporated, and so on. The result is a significant amount of sediment. Nevertheless, the overall weight of the apparatus after the experience has not changed: it means, no matter the outside has not acceded. In this work, Lavoisier is satisfied armed with his method - the method of quantitative research.
Having mastered the method, Lavoisier proceeds to its main task. Work it, create a modern chemistry, covering the period between 1772 and 1789. The starting point of his research served as the increase in body weight during combustion. In 1772 he presented a note to the academy, which reported the results of his experiments showing that the combustion of sulfur and phosphorus, they are increasing in weight through the air, in other words, combined with a part of the air.
. In 1775, he presented the Academy a memoir, in which the composition of the air was first to find out exactly
. The air is composed of two gases: "clean air" that can enhance the combustion and respiration, oxidizing metals, and mefiticheskogo air "that does not have these properties. Names of oxygen and nitrogen were given later.
All acid Lavoisier sees as the connection of non-metallic body with oxygen: for example, with sulfur, he gives sulfuric, with coal - coal, with phosphorus - phosphoric acid, and t. d..
He determined the composition of organic bodies and created an organic analysis by combustion of carbon and hydrogen in a certain amount of oxygen. In 1789 came his first textbook of modern chemistry - the phenomenon in its own way unique in the history of science: the entire textbook compiled by the works of the author.
Lavoisier first brought the phenomenon of life to the action of chemical and physical forces. He created the doctrine of the breath as the slow oxidation occurring within the organism, and the oxygen combines with the elements of fabrics, provides water and carbon dioxide. Equally important was his theory of animal heat.
The number of its reports (not counting the actual scientific memoirs) - more than two hundred. In 1768 he was elected an associate in 1772-m Lavoisier became a full member in 1778-m - retired in 1785-m - director of the Academy.
. In 1778 Lavoisier had bought the estate Freshin between Blois and Vendц¦me over 229 thousand livres, and then bought some of the other estates (total of 600 livres) and started on the agronomic experiments
. In his estate, he did not skimp on agronomic experiments and gradually brought his farm to a flowering state.
Been fruitful and results-based management Lavoisier gunpowder factory in the years 1775-1791. In this case he took with his usual energy.
During the French Revolution, as one of the operators, the scientist went to prison. May 8, 1794 the trial. 28 operators, including Lavoisier, were sentenced to death. Lavoisier was the fourth in the list. Before him were executed his father-Benefit. Then came his turn to ...