LAMARCA Jean-Baptiste (Lamarck)( French naturalist)
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Biography LAMARCA Jean-Baptiste (Lamarck)
Jean-Baptiste de Monet Chevalier de Lamarck was born August 1, 1744 in France. He was the eleventh child in an impoverished aristocratic family. After his father's death sixteen Lamarck left a Jesuit school and joined in 1761 as a volunteer in the army. After the war Lamarck came to Paris and began to study medicine. After several years of enhanced training young scientist wrote a great essay in three volumes - "Flora of France", issued in 1778. They describe the set of plants and given a guide to their identification. This book has made the name of Lamarck's famous, and the following year he was elected a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences. In 1781 he was appointed chief botanist of the French king.
From 1799 to 1810, he published eleven volumes dedicated to meteorology. He worked in physics and chemistry.
In 1793, when Lamarck was already fifty, his scientific activity has radically changed. Royal Botanic Gardens, where he worked Lamarck, was transformed into the Museum of Natural History. Vacant Chair of Botany at the museum was not, and he offered to do zoology. After 10 years, Lamarck became as much an expert in the field of zoology, which was in the field of botany. He decided to write this book, which is not described by individual organisms, as would be explained to the laws of development of wildlife. Lamarck conceived to show how animals and plants there, as they changed and developed, and they reached the current state. e. show the evolution of the organic world.
Only a few scientists to Lamarck's surmise about the variability of species, but only Lamarck his store of knowledge could solve this problem. Therefore Lamarck deservedly considered the creator of the first evolutionary theory, a precursor of Darwin.
Lamarck published his book in 1809 and named it "The Philosophy of Zoology". Some scientists are not paid for his book, no attention, while others laughed at her.
By the end of life of Lamarck, and dazzled by all the forgotten, died Dec. 18, 1829 eighty-five years of age. With him there was only his daughter Cornelia. She took care of him until his death and wrote under his dictation.
. In 1859 a remarkable essay Darwin's Origin of Species "has confirmed the correctness of evolutionary theory, proved it on many facts.
. According to Lamarck's development of plants and animals depend on two main reasons
. The first reason is that the entire organic-sky world is constantly striving to evolve and improve - it is his inherent internal property, which Lamarck described a desire to progress.
. The second reason, which determines, according to the teachings of Lamarck, the evolution of the organic world - is the impact on organisms of the environment in which they live
. This situation, or living environment, composed of the impact on animals and plants of food, light, heat, moisture, air, soil and t. d. Wednesday is very diverse and changeable, so it affects the body in different ways. Furthermore, Lamarck believed that the traits that organisms acquire under the influence of the environment, can be inherited.
From the standpoint of modern biology, the theory of Lamarck is old-fashioned. Modern science denies that in the organic world there is some mysterious and inexplicable desire to improve. Darwin explained differently on whether the structure of the body of animals and plants and how they adapt to the environment. The main reason he considered evolution by natural selection. The effect of the environment on organisms, which occupies an important place in the teachings of Lamarck, recognized and modern biology.
. Darwin at the end of his life admitted that he did not pay sufficient attention to the modified organisms under the influence of their environment
. Modern biology attaches great importance to the influence of the environment.
. However, the main merit of Lamarck's not in explaining the causes of evolution, but that he was the first for half a century before Darwin proposed the theory of natural origin and development of the organic world.