Joachim Murat (Murat Joachim)( Grand Duke Bergsky, King of Naples)
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Biography Joachim Murat (Murat Joachim)
Joachim Murat - son of a simple innkeeper began military service in the twenty years as an ordinary soldier in the royal cavalry, as had a passion for horses. Physically strong and representative Joachim Murat differed strongest character and sometimes reckless bravery. However, with such qualities, he could hardly count on an officer's career in the Royal Army.
The French Revolution put everything in the country, including in the former is now the royal army, with its head. In 1792, Murat was made an officer, and from that time began its rapid ascent up the ladder.
. His rise began with the October 4, 1795, when he was a commander of a cavalry squadron is, managed to bring to the center of Paris, the desperate artillery.
. During the Italian campaign of Napoleon, Joachim Murat, has always been close to his generals
. At the head of the French cavalry, he boldly attacked the Austrian troops, persistently pursued them, while taking many prisoners and rich booty.
. The award was not long to wait - in 1796, Murat was made a brigadier general, which was a fitting recognition of his contribution to the war in Italy.
. At the beginning of Napoleon's Egyptian Expedition 1798-1801 period Murat received the following military rank - the rank of major general.
. Murat soon distinguished himself in the storming of the fortress of Saint-Jean d'Arc and under the Nile, where he defeated the Turkish troops
. In that battle he was wounded in the head with a shot from a pistol during a melee fight with bodyguards Mustafa Pasha. When Napoleon left Egypt, leaving the country its Eastern Army, including its a small entourage and was a cavalry general Joachim Murat. He returned to France together with the future emperor of the ship "Karrere.
In Paris, the major general was one of the main actors in the coup that led to power of Napoleon Bonaparte. When that critical moment in the parliamentary events dispirited, that pushed him Murat, to act.
These events brought together more with Joachim Murat, Napoleon. Soon they were related - Murat married a sister of Caroline Bonaparte. After that Murat was appointed Governor of Paris and almost simultaneously became a member of the legislative body.
. Murat's Cavalry participated in all the major battles of the military campaigns of 1805, 1806 and 1807 years, in the vanguard of the main forces of Napoleon's army against the troops of Austria, Prussia and Russia.
. In 1808, Murat was the commander of the French army in Spain.
. During the Russian campaign Napoleon Marshal Murat commanded the 28 thousandth Cavalry Corps, operating in the forefront of the Grand Army.
. At Borodino, Marshal Murat and his cavalry was in the inferno of battle
. His regiment took part in almost all the attacks on the center of the Russian position - Bagration Flash.
Murat's cavalry and took part in storming the mound by the height in which the heavy losses suffered heavy cavalry - cuirassiers. In the battle for the Great Redoubt, or the battery died Rajewski commander of one of the cavalry corps of the French Army, General Caulaincourt, whom Murat in his report to the emperor of the Borodino battle as one of the heroes of the day.
. In France, the battle of Borodino was called the Battle of the Moskva River
. Day Borodin, so nice for Russian arms, turned this tragedy for myuratovskoy cavalry, which left half their number in this field.
. Almost complete destruction of the Grand Army in the fields and forests of Russia broke down the faith Joachim Murat in the good fortune of Napoleon
. In January 1813 he handed over command of the remnants of the French troops to Eugene Beauharnais, and, without asking permission from the Emperor, went to Naples, the capital of his kingdom.
. In the military campaign in 1813, Marshal Murat was fought on the side of Napoleon Bonaparte, newly in command of the French cavalry, which, after Borodino and numerically and the skills of was not the same
. He participated in the battles of Leipzig and Dresden. In the latter Murat much to the success of Napoleon's army, which the union - the Prussian, Austrian and Russian - outnumbered by almost half.
. Near Dresden, Napoleon sent a major blow on the left flank of the allies, where stood the Austrian troops under the command of the imperial commander Schwarzenberg, who was until recently commander of the corps in Napoleon's army
. The position of the Austrians was inconvenient fact that the center location of the Allied armies were separated Planensky deep ravine.
. Battle of Dresden on 26-27 August 1813 was the last winning entry in a commander's biography of Marshal of France, Joachim Murat
. The outcome of the battle were impressive: the enemy lost 16 thousand dead and wounded, 15 of thousands - of prisoners and 40 guns (the main losses were Austrian). The winners have lost about 10 thousand people. Murat feted as the hero of the battle, but he already knew that in the near future, the Napoleonic Empire comes to an end.
In 1814, the allied armies entered Paris prostrate. Napoleon, under pressure from his marshals abdicated and by the grace of the winners became the head of a small state on the island of Elba. Murat returned to Naples. He was ready to do anything to keep he founded the royal dynasty to the throne in southern Italy. One such attempt was the conclusion in January 1814 agreement with Austria and Great Britain. As it undertook to put up against Murat, Napoleon's 30-thousand army.
However, to keep the king's crown he failed. At the Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 period of the Napoleonic marshal's claim to Naples did not receive support from the monarchs of Europe.
. Being defeated by the Austrians in Italy and not getting there the expected military support, Murat fled first to France and then to the island of Corsica
. But the desire to regain the kingdom given him by Napoleon did not leave him. And he decided to act.
In September 1815 Joachim Murat at the head of a small detachment of his followers landed in southern Italy, in Calabria. However, conceived a victorious military campaign in Naples did not work. Napoleon's former marshal was arrested and tried by the Austrian military court. He was sentenced to death Murat, and 15 minutes after the sentence was executed.