Maximilien Robespierre (Robespierre)( The activity of the French Revolution)
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Biography Maximilien Robespierre (Robespierre)
Maximilien Marie Isidore de Robespierre was born on May 6, 1758 in Arras. His father, Francois Robespierre (born 1732) was a lawyer of the Council of Artois. His mother, Jacqueline Carr (born 1737) daughter of a wealthy bourgeois.
Maximilien's sister, Charlotte was born on February 8, 1760, Henrietta - 28 December 1761, his brother Augustin - 21 January 1763 (30 years to the day before the execution of King Louis XVI).
Marital happiness was not long. Robespierre's mother died July 14, 1764. This was a major blow for children. Inconsolable widower Francois Robespierre made several trips to Belgium, Holland and Germany. According to some sources, he ended his wanderings by Munish (Munich, Bavaria), where he was buried November 6, 1777.
Maximilien and Augustin were entrusted to his grandfather and grandmother of the family Carro. Charlotte and Henrietta went to Belgium in the city of Tournai, to his aunts - sisters Francois Robespierre.
Despite his young age Maximilien rapidly matured. He soon felt the weight of responsibility of senior family. Shortly after the death of his grandfather, he himself had to contain his brother and sisters.
Love of animals showed a Maximilien from childhood. He bred birds - he had his own loft. He is also fond of dogs, the faithful four-legged life were his friends.
And in 6 years Maximilien tried to overcome his grief, plunged into study. He studied at the school of the Order of Oratory, where in 1769 was sent to fellows in the College Louis le Grand in Paris (Louis-le-Grand) on the recommendation of the abbot of Saint-Vaasta.
Maximilien quickly gained fame not only a diligent student, but also a good friend. He often spoke protector of the weak. Robespierre for strength of character was called the Roman. His best friend was Camille Desmoulins - idler and bully.
June 15, 1775, Robespierre as the best of the students have chosen to welcome King Louis XVI, who returned after the coronation of Reims. However, the monarch was not going to listen to for a long time scholar. Royal crew immediately left, spattered with mud Maximilien.
March 5, 1780 Robespierre caught up with yet another misfortune: she died beloved sister Henrietta, she was vsego19 years.
Brilliantly finished college, Robespierre entered the law faculty of the Sorbonne. 31 July 1780 he received the title of Bachelor of Laws, and May 15, 1781 became a Bachelor of Laws.
Lawyer, judge, poet
After graduation, Robespierre returned to his native city of Arras. He lived with his sister Charlotte Street Somon.
November 8, 1781 Robespierre began to practice. The first thing he lost. Too strong was his opponent. Maximilien took into account their blunders and mistakes. He immersed himself in hard work. His works have been rewarded. Robespierre was quickly shot to fame of a talented young lawyer.
Maksimilenu was not and 24 years old when he was appointed a judge - March 19, 1782.
First time the death sentence a murderer - it was difficult psychological step. Charlotte wrote that Maximilien several days ate. There is a version that after the incident, Robespierre resigned as a judge, but it is not true. Documents show that he held this position for several years.
Maximilien successfully combined judging from the practice of law. In 1782 he defended his attorney 17 cases.
One of the most famous cases Maximilien Robespierre - 'The Case of the lightning rod'. A certain Monsieur Visser, an addictive physics, established over his house lightning rod that has outraged local authorities. Superstitious people are suspicious of such inventions. Robespierre won his case, and his speeches were published in pamphlet. Maximilien was not afraid to join in the fight against the powerful, he always sought justice.
Even in college he discovered the teachings of philosophers of the XVIII century.
'Social Contract' (an apology for democracy) and 'Speech on the origin of inequality among men' (equality rights), Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The ideas of the great philosopher did not leave him even during a successful legal career. They have a significant impact on his political activities in the future.
Despite the early career off Maximilien little to no different from the young people of his time. He fell in love, wrote amorous letters to the ladies, loved picnics, good company. He loved to joke, laugh.
Of passions Robespierre known: Mademoiselle Deshays - girlfriend Shartotty - and Anais Dezorti - his cousin. There is a romantic story that he was going to marry her. They swore to each other. For her, Robespierre ordered the portrait, which in one hand he holds a rose, the other pressed to his heart, and the inscription to the portrait reads: 'everything for the beloved'. However, everything turned out wrong, as would like. Maximilien went for three months, and when I returned, she was already married. Who knows, maybe it's for the better.
Like most young men of that era Maximilien dabbled in literature.
Robespierre took part in a literary contest announced by the Academy of the city of Metz. The theme of his work was the moral and legal issue of family responsibility for the crimes of a relative. Maximilien won, he received a medal for his work and the premium 400 livres. Flushed with success, Robespierre sent a new work of the Academy of Amiens (the provincial capital of Burgundy), but this time lost. However, Maximilien quickly took their revenge by presenting their work in the Academy of Arras. A February 24, 1786 he was elected president.
Maksimilenu liked to spend free time in the literary society 'Rosati'. It is a society with an emblem in the form of roses was founded in 1778. Friends of society came together to honor the friends of his poems, philosophical reflection, research papers, and just pleasant to talk. It said the visitors 'Rosati' - 'a community that connects young, feel love for poetry, flowers and wine'. Robespierre, too, wrote poems in a fashionable manner. Known his song in honor of the wine. Thanks Robespierre in June 1787 in Society 'Rosati' has Rose Festival.
There Robespierre had many friends in Arras. The most famous of them: a lawyer Byuissar, which has always supported Maximilien, Monsieur Liborel - influential Arrasky Lawyer. And as Lazare Carnot - the most skilful poet, esquire of the city and Joseph Fouche - church teacher. These two men to play a fatal role in the life of his friend.
How it all began
Maximilien Robespierre made a successful legal career in a very short period. He was widely known in the province of Artois. However, Maximilien awaited new challenges.
Blame was greatly Robespierre. He undertook to defend craftsman Francois Detefa, accused the monks of the Dominican monastery in the theft. Maximilien understood the real thief - one of the monks. Going against the clergy has always been the risk. Moreover Maximilien issued prior to trial the text of his speech, which was a flagrant violation. In his speech, he dared to go beyond the case and condemned the clergy. But Robespierre was not opposed to religion, which can not be tarnished by the 'vices of its ministers'. This speech was a sensation.
The enemy of Robespierre in the court was made by his former friend and patron Liborel, who Maximilien accused of lying.
Although the case ended successfully, the hype around Robespierre not settled. He lost everything that sought all these years. Number of lawyers' cases has declined sharply. In 1788 they were less than in 1782, when he first started his career. Friends turned against Robespierre. Only Byuissar supported him. Liborel not restricted by the court, continued to speak out against his former friend. He said that Robespierre is guided by 'dirty interests ... low greed and vile envy '
. A January 30, 1787 Judicial Council of the province of Artois said, . that 'orders, . all expressions, . infringing on the authority of law and jurisprudence and insulting the judges, . in print memoir, . signed by counsel Robespierre, . considered invalid,
. Council also ordered that this decree was published in the form of posters posted in the cities of Arras, Bethune and wherever it is necessary '. Thus they removed the Robespierre of the judiciary of the world, although formally it still held his post.
Robespierre understood that he has only one way - to fight, go ahead. No return. Such a man as Maximilien not going to drag out a miserable existence of a failure, discarded by local authorities. He was accustomed to success and he loved to pursue his. But how to rise again when the legal career ruined?
All agreed to convene the States General. Robespierre understood - this is his chance to be a deputy of the Assembly. His election campaign he began with the publication of 'Address to the Nation of Artois on the need to reform the provincial assembly'. Maximilien understood that is unlikely to be supported by representatives of the nobility and the clergy, whom he greatly spoiled life for years of legal practice. Robespierre made a bet on a third-class voters, he insisted it was their interests, and they supported him. In April 1789 he was elected to the States-General of France as a deputy from the third estate.
However, the electoral campaign has cost a pretty penny. Although Robespierre won the election, he went to Paris poorer than it was when returning to Arras after study.
As a deputy, much of the salary he sent his brother and sister in Arras, a lot of money was spent in the publication of speeches and articles. From the measured life of a wealthy lawyer Maximilien again fell into poverty.
Political program of Robespierre
At the time of the old order, these ideas were innovative and shocking. Now almost all the points of this program are the basic rules of democracy.
1. Universal suffrage for all citizens.
2. Freedom of speech, press, theater.
3. Abolition of censorship.
4. Mandatory social rules.
5. Right to work.
6. Assistance to the unemployed, the elderly, disabled.
7. The development of imports to increase income.
8. The rights of priests to wear civilian clothes and get married.
In the States-General, and then in the National Assembly (1789-91), Robespierre took the extreme left position. Being a supporter of Rousseau, criticized the liberal majority of the Assembly for the lack of radicalism of the reforms. These same ideas he developed from the rostrum of the Jacobin Club, which became a leader. Saturated democratic (and sometimes demagogic) rhetoric of speeches Robespierre brought wide popularity among the people and the nickname 'Incorruptible'.
Robespierre tried in private life to be with people. He lived in a house carpenter Dupleix and lived modestly pointed. In one of the smaller rooms of the wooden house he lived until his death.
Robespierre against the war
Autumn 1791 in France by volatile situation. The country was on the brink of war with neighboring states such as Austria and Prussia.
At the war had high hopes, King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette. They believed that war would be their salvation, liberation from the mob, which in the course of the revolution has taken away some of their absolute rights of power. Constitutional monarchy did not suit the kings, they wanted to return to absolutism.
The leaders of the Girondins: Brissot, right, Inari - openly advocated for military action. Their eloquence and campaigning to succeed the masses. These people are pursuing their own goals. So they were going to increase their influence and strengthen their power.
Politicians Girondins had pinned great hopes on the war. Besides taking the north-eastern territories seemed to them a very promising. His military propaganda, they are just trying to distract people from domestic economic problems.
November 29, 1791 in the Assembly Girondist Inar with filing Brissot delivers vivid speech calling for military action against states that are hostile against the French Revolution.
It was a success. She was an ovation. And at this moment Incorruptible Robespierre, among the mass militant attitude uttered his famous phrase:
. 'The strangest idea that could germinate in the head of policy - is to believe that the people enough to penetrate with a weapon in the hands of the neighboring nations, to compel it to adopt its laws and its polity
. Armed missionaries nobody likes. The first council, which gives the nature and reason - to drive them as enemies ... '
This is a wise saying, do not seem to have lost relevance in our days.
Robespierre spoke four times in the Jacobin Club against the war. Incorruptible nearly one defended his anti-war stance. He did not have such clear and equal in strength of the Allies.
In his speech on Dec. 18, 1791, he openly stated about the conspiracy of the court and Feuillants - Barnave, Lameth - former Jacobins. He denounced the War Minister Narbonne, who sought to create an army to crush the revolution. Robespierre said that in such a situation is possible even civil war. He pointed out that with such an internal situation, the victory of France in the war impossible.
Brissot was able to provide compelling arguments against the speech of Robespierre, he answered only to slander and insults.
January 11, 1792 Robespierre once again had a clear and logical speech. Logic and equanimity always been his weapon. Robespierre said that if war is inevitable, it is necessary to create an army of loyal people of France, the winners of the Bastille, to collect national guardsmen.
It was a success. Robespierre was the winner. Even Brissot decided to go to a truce with the incorruptible.
In the spring the situation has changed. In March 1792 the king agreed to form a ministry of the Girondins. Monarchs planned so 'trick' them. Start by Girondins war, which promised salvation monarchs. Moreover, because they seek the support of influential people among the politicians.
Ministerial portfolios were such leaders of the Girondins as Dumouriez and Roland. After Roland his acted smart and ambitious wife Manon. Thanks to her advice, not stupid, but too diffident husband was able to reach such political heights. Manon took direct part in French policy.
In the hands of the Girondins was the real power. In order to distract people from the dire economic situation, they expanded the revolutionary agitation. Revolutionary 'reforms' has been subjected to all - even fashion. Negligence, excessive simplicity - that's the style of this sans-culottes, the true revolutionary. Do not forget about the Republican severity that significantly affected the ladies' dresses. Later, for some reason this would be attributed to Robespierre. What is he wanted to introduce 'republican austerity in Paris'. Actually Incorruptible resented all this carousing.
War was declared April 20, 1792. Ministerial portfolios Girondins played a crucial role. The war has begun!
But Incorruptible not surrendered.
May 17, 1792 Robespierre published the first issue of his newspaper 'Defender of the Constitution', which spoke in defense of the French soldiers who have been victims of military sabotage. Robespierre opposed by General Lafayette, one of the commanders of the French army, and policy Brissot.
This was only the beginning of the incorruptible struggle with the Gironde.
August 10, 1792 assault on the royal palace marked the end of the reign of Louis XVI. During the Paris Commune uprising self-styled Robespierre included among its members. In September, he was elected to the Convention, which together with M. P. Marat and M. Danton led the left wing ( "Mountain") and led a bitter struggle against the Girondins in power (September 1792 - May 1793).
After the vote, or there is no escape
Suspecting the latter in an effort to restore the monarchy, Robespierre December 3, 1792 the court suggested, without the execution of Louis XVI, who, in his view, betrayed the revolution. And when the court nevertheless held, voted for the death of the King (15 January 1793). Because Girondins tried to save the former monarch, Robespierre, contributed to the expulsion of the leaders of the Convention (as a result of the uprising on May 31 - June 2, 1793).
26 July 1793 Robespierre entered the Committee of Public Safety. After the invasion army of the first coalition of European countries to France Convent handed executive authority to the Committee of Public Safety. Together with its adherents L. A. Saint-Just and M. Couthon Robespierre determined the general political line of the revolutionary government and in fact led them. In November-December, he made the end of the dechristianization ", held ultra-leftist (Hebertists), and implanted them condemned atheism. Simultaneously, he rejected the claim of supporters of termination Danton revolutionary terror
. In the keynote address on Feb. 5, 1794 and in subsequent speeches, Robespierre proclaimed the ultimate goal of the revolution to build a new society based on principles russoistskih "republican morality", . based on an artificially created state religion worship the Supreme Being,
. With the victory of "republican virtue, Robespierre believed, would solve all social problems. The main means of implementing its ethical utopia he believed the terror.
In March-April 1794 on the initiative of Robespierre and Saint-Just was executed by the followers of Jacques Hebert and supporters of a conciliatory configured Georges Danton, who sought to put an end to terror. In May and June Robespierre orchestrated a nationwide campaign to spread the cult of the Supreme Being. June 10, he and Couthon secured the adoption laws that impose the death penalty for crimes against the republican morality, and in fact the defendants were deprived of the right to protection. Which began immediately after the "Great Terror" affected all social strata and undermined the former popularity of "integrity". Utopian ideals of Robespierre did not meet with support in society, and his dictatorial ambitions turned against him overwhelming majority of deputies of the Convention.
July 27 (the revolutionary calendar, Thermidor 9) The Convention adopted a decree for the arrest of Robespierre and his supporters. Those tried to organize resistance, but were captured by troops loyal to the Convent of the Paris City Hall.
After his arrest revealed that Robespierre's bullet shattered his lower jaw. Gendarme Meda insisted that it was he, though unsuccessfully, shot Robespierre, but, writes T. Kardeyl, "not many believed him, but they are incredible".
"... Historians are still arguing - writes E. Chernyak, - was shot in the jaw is the result of Robespierre attempted suicide, or a trace of a bullet gendarme, swept into City Hall. If it was a suicide attempt, Robespierre was sent to take the muzzle in his mouth than horizontally, and vertically.
There is a death mask, as if filmed from Robespierre. As it can be seen that, along with a trace of a bullet fired in the chin, shows and other injuries of the lower jaw - a shot fired from behind. It is this injury did not give Robespierre to speak. Thus, confirms the suspicion expressed by the more his contemporaries. One of them - Mallet du Pan - wrote on the heels of the events of 9 Thermidor that the conspirators decided to make Robespierre silent ".
Robespierre, now and then loses consciousness, his hands moved to the building of the Convention and placed on a table in one room of the Committee of Public Safety. Under the incorruptible head of a wooden box stuffed with pieces of moldy bread.
Night Robespierre was half delirious. 28 July 1794 at six in the morning (just at this time, Convent, decide my fate of Robespierre and the other prisoners, ended sit), entered the room Elie Lacoste, together with the surgeon. He told the doctor how to dress the wound Robespierre. But it was not necessary for treatment, and incorruptible to be executed in "good form"
. By six in the evening Robespierre and 22 others, declared outside the law, were brought in carts at the Place de Greve.
. "All eyes were fixed on the cart Robespierre - Carlyle describes this scene," where he, with the jaw, a bandage on a dirty cloth, sat beside his half-dead brother ..
. Gendarmes indicate Robespierre drafts, so that the people recognized him. "
At the foot of the scaffold he was placed on the ground in anticipation of the queue. When the time came, the assistant executioner threw Robespierre on his deathbed and gave the verdict because.
At the grave Maksimelena Robespierre placed next epitaph:
Passer! Do not grieve over my destiny.
You would be dead when I had been alive.
Photos of Maximilien Robespierre (Robespierre)
Photos of Maximilien Robespierre (Robespierre)
|Olga for Maximilien Robespierre (Robespierre)
|At the site needs to put only verified the facts, especially when it comes to historical figures. Robespierre and his colleagues were executed at the Revolution Square, and not on the Place de Greve ...