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Aleijadinho

( Architect)

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Biography Aleijadinho
Aleijadinho was born in Vila Pina August 29, 1730 or 1738goda.

He was the son of a native of Portugal, the contractor and architect M.F. Lisboa, the author of many monumental churches and civic buildings, and the slave-negro Isabel. As a son of a slave, he was born a slave, but when he was still a child, his father bought him and brought together with the legitimate children. My father noticed early artistic abilities Antonio and helped him to develop them. Since childhood, the future master acquainted with the work of sculptors, carvers, decorators and design and construction of the father and probably his uncle п-.пг. Pombal. He entered the circle of intellectuals captain.

Already in early youth, Antonio was the most apt pupil M.F. Lisboa, and later became his chief assistant. Although the official documents in accordance with the customs of the time he is referred to as a master only after his father's death, there are many reasons to believe that since the early 1760-ies his participation in the M.F. Lisboa was active and creative. Quick professional growth and autonomy Aleijadinho confirmed by the fact, . that immediately after the death of his father, . addition to the completion of buildings started, . it proceeds to the construction of its first, . plastic, . a statue, . Church of San Francisco de Assisi in Vila Rica (1766-1794), . which has become a masterpiece of Brazilian baroque.,

. Church of San Francisco features an amazing performance of integrity, . which is determined almost only in the practice of architecture of colonial Brazil, the development of the facades and interiors one master, . moreover, combining in himself the architect, . decorator and sculptor.,

. Antonio Francisco Lisboa was equally sculptor and architect, but in different periods of life are mostly one of these arts
. In 1770-1780-ies he builds some significant artistically church buildings in the cities of Minas Gerais - Villa Rica, Sabara, Sao Joao del Rei and later at Congonhas. At the same time it performs a variety of expressive, but technically imperfect decorative sculptures.

In the 1780's he created a magnificent stone carvings and wood on the facades. But later, in 1790-1800's, he worked mainly as a mature and original sculptor, and architecture is only concerned with a view to creating the necessary environment for their sculptural ensembles or decorating the interiors.

,
. High spiritualized the idea of creativity Aleijadinho, enriched his skills.

Monumental symbolic whole idea of the ensemble in Congonhas do Campo. Complex sanctuary, . center and the completion of which is the pilgrimage church of Bom Jesus de Matuzinyus, . located on a hill and also includes a kind of sacred way for pilgrims and religious processions, . lined with palm trees and surrounded by twelve cubic chapels, . overlain with closed sets of, . Open the front yard and some small auxiliary structures,
.

The sanctuary may be, is not the architectural ensemble in the usual sense, but is a complex, only gradually perceived ensemble. It combines the natural landscape, stairs, roads, grounds, with architectural objects. Construction of the complex serves not only compositional idea, but, above all, functional-liturgical "script" place of pilgrimage. A sequence of biblical and Gospel texts defined, for example, placing the statues of the prophets, and scenes of his way to Calvary. It procession of pilgrims to the church in the mountain symbolized this way. Despite the diversity of expressive means of artistic unity of the ensemble has achieved compliance with the primary figurative and symbolic load of architectural, . sculptures and, . probably, . scenic elements of a single group of sculptors, . carvers and painters under the guidance of one master - Aleijadinho.,

. Church with an unusual exposure of plans put on top of the hill, . the slope leading to her front staircases, . avenue of royal palms, . and ensemble complete with a pyramid-shaped chapel cubic completion and numerous sculptures, . carved Aleijadinho.,

. Soon after the construction of the bulk of the church began construction of the platform with ladders leading to it, as well as alteration of the facade of the
. The facade of the Church of Bom Jesus de Matuzinyus, which is built and off with in those years, when it began construction on the project Aleijadinho plastic church of San Francisco in Ouro Preto, maintained, nevertheless, originally conceived flatness. And this is probably not a coincidence. Facade, . particularly portal, . made Aleijadinho, . as richly ornamented, . dynamically and graphically, . as in Ouro Preto, . but large amounts of plastic that church in the church at Congonhas seemed divorced from the facade - moved into the outer space of the sanctuary: a statue, . their pedestals, . kinks stairs,
. It reinforced the softness of curves in the parapets, benches, steps.

. With a total calm facade of the Church of Bom Jesus with two slender bell tower and high, . extended up crosses, . forming the background of the sculptural composition, . silhouette of the church is dynamic, . divided, . echoing with statues, . that their size (about 2, . 5 meter height) creates a large-scale transition from man to architecture.,

. It is impossible, perhaps, to determine prevailed in the individual Aleijadinho sculptor or an architect, but the composition is not only the ensemble as a whole, but become subject to architectural and compositional requirements.

. Creativity and personality Aleijadinho, a true son of the Brazilian people, who, not having conceded a severe illness, reached peaks of original art, has long been the national pride of Brazil.

. Aleijadinho died November 18, 1814 in Vila Pina.


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