Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini( Architect)
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Biography Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini was born on December 7, 1598 in Naples. Lorenzo was ten years old when his father, a famous sculptor, Pietro Bernini, moved at the invitation of Pope Paul V from Naples to Rome to work on the marble group in one of the Vatican chapels. To get to that time the technical skills of processing marble boy, got into the Vatican, locked in rooms, drawing from morning till evening. On his talent rumors, . He caught the eye of Paul V, . received an order from the pope's nephew, . Cardinal Scipione Borghese, . and smote all, . creating extraordinary works of sculpture: "Aeneas and Anchises", . "Rape of Proserpine", . David, . "Apollo and Daphne" (all - 1619-1625),
. Junior has managed to achieve a self-taught incredible dynamics of the masses and lines, reflecting the emotional stress of the characters, and almost illusory substantiality, passing in the marble maiden tenderness of the skin, downy hair, Daphne, bark and leaves of laurel tree.
. Since then, successive on the throne of his father passed on to each other as a precious inheritance
. Urban VIII, . Rome conceived to decorate churches and secular buildings, . sculpture, . fountains and gardens, . Bernini placed at the head of a studio, . where the work of prominent sculptors, . bronzirovschiki, . modeller, . gilder, . "architects of the water" - Hydraulics, . construction workers,
. That's him, the papal architect and sculptor, largely owes his famous image of "Eternal City". Since the early 20-ies of XVII century on his ideas, under his leadership created the most famous monuments and formed the Roman Baroque style.
. The most beneficial field for this architecture was, . closely related to real life and opportunity for the synthesis of - one of the most important principles of Baroque, . as architectural ensemble necessarily includes pictorial and sculptural decoration.,
. Vividly manifested in the principle of the synthesis of church architecture
. By 17 th century formed a new Catholic ritual, furnished with theatrical pomp, and temples were to serve him worthy of framing. It is in this area began their search for the largest Italian architects. Lorenzo Bernini, one of the first proposed for the church of Santa Bibiana new type of facade - the free picturesque composition.
In 1624 Bernini commissioned a unique work - the construction of the so-called canopy in sredokrestii Michelangelo designed the Cathedral of St.. Peter. The height of the canopy - twenty-nine meters - many contemporaries considered excessive. But the master guessed accurately - the altar is visible from the far end of the main sky, attracts, grows on the eyes, bronze trunks supporting the ceiling, fly up, wriggling and perekruchivayas like creatures. Near he will find a different scale, ideally commensurate with incredible height of the dome of Michelangelo. For many years, their creation turns the heads of everyone who is in St. Peter. Peter ...
Bernini again become worthy of "co-authored by Michelangelo in the grand ensemble Square SW. Peter (1657-1663). It was necessary to merge all into a single composition, make the surrounding space into a stage for ceremonial celebrations, and most importantly - make an unforgettable impression on people.
. Obnesya colonnaded circular area at a depth of two hundred and eighty meters, the architect barred the direct route to the cathedral, placing in the center of the obelisk, and on the transverse axis - the two fountains
. Since the release of the viewer on an oval area, . Colonnade, . the expression of Bernini, . "like open arms", . capture the audience and direct its movement to the dominant composition - main facade, . whence, through the lobby and aisles longitudinal movement continues to the altar,
. Translucent deep in the area and closed trapezoidal space, differently illuminated rays of the sun, the facade of the temple suddenly grows in all their greatness, visually underlined divergent term in the galleries.
. Bernini would dazzle the city with his own hands, as if he was a giant statue
. Church, designed by him in his mature years, all located in the central part of the city: the Church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, Church delle Ariccia and di Castel Gandolfo.
. One of them - the church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale (1658) - should be attributed to outstanding examples of Roman Baroque architecture
. It belongs to the category of places of worship, which in contrast to most typed samples are examples of deeply personal approach to the creative task of the architect.
The plan of the temple does not have a single straight line, in what could be seen extreme purely baroque aspirations
. Besides, . that he was involved in the construction of such a large monument, . as the Palazzo Barberini, . where its contribution, . perhaps, . was decisive, . Two of his other creation - and palazzo palazzo Montechitorio Odescalchi - are examples of important introduction to a wide range of issues, . related to the evolution of this type of buildings.,
. Rome is unthinkable without a fountain created by Bernini
. Perpetual-motion cascades of water echo the intricate curves of shells, figures of dolphins and tritons in the fountain of Triton Square Barberini, in the fountain in Piazza Navona, Mavra. In the Fountain of Four Rivers mass of sculptures symbolizing the rivers, animals, plants, and rough boulders, among which stands the Egyptian obelisk, is awash in the beating, spraying, flowing smoothly on all sides by streams and jets.
. Pope Gregory XV awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of Master of Christ and the title of "Chevalier"
. His contemporaries included him in a series of "divine creator", naming the heir of the Titans Renaissance. Memoirists describe Bernini's lively, temperamental, full of fire, constantly immersed in conversations about art and hard work.
In the tremendous legacy of Bernini, except architectural and sculptural masterpieces, were painted and graphic works.
Master lived a long life. He died November 12, 1680 in Rome. With a powerful natural talent, as a strong personality, occupying a high position at the papal court, he gained unquestioned authority and turned into "art dictator" the Italian XVII century.