BEAUVAIS Osip Ivanovich( Architect)
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Biography BEAUVAIS Osip Ivanovich
Osip Ivanovich Bove was born in 1784 in St. Petersburg, the son of the painter Vincenzo Giovanni Bove, who worked at the Hermitage. Osip was the eldest son, two younger brothers - Michael and Alexander - later also became an architect and his closest aides. Even as a child Osip moved with his family to Moscow where he began years of study.
. In 1802 Bove goes to the architectural school at the Expedition Kremlin buildings.
. Bove has successfully worked in the architectural school, rising gradually in rank, from the clerk and collegiate registrar in 1803 to the Provincial Secretary in 1806 and a collegiate secretary in 1809
. In the years 1809-1812 Bove has been on the number of assistants in the expedition of architect, participates in the restoration of the Kremlin, repair of buildings, improvement of the city.
. The Commission considered that the public and administrative buildings require special attention and decorum in the facades, and offered to monitor the construction of these buildings to request a "decent and ability" of the architects of the commission.
. In May 1814, this duty was assigned to Bove
. In February 1816 Council of the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg for the draft and made them practical for many buildings, Bove awarded the title of architect.
The first work Bove were associated with the reconstruction of Red Square, one of the oldest areas of the city, the center of its commercial and social life. Built in the XVIII century shops, she was isolated from the Kremlin and St Basil's Cathedral. During the fire of 1812 and the explosion of the Kremlin, Red Square has undergone extensive destruction. In the early 1814 Bove presented to the committee a draft restructuring Red Square.
. The ensemble of the square Bove including historical monuments - the Kremlin wall with Spassky and Nikolskaya Towers and the Cathedral of the Intercession (St. Basil).
. Ensemble of the square was rebuilt to decorate the project Bove building trade rows, located along the square
Ensemble, conceived Bove goes beyond the Red Square: supposed to build middle and lower ranks of the trade and that a uniform built-up whole neighborhoods to link the Red Square to China Town. This idea Bove received its implementation only in the second half of the XIX century. However, the general idea of the ensemble, developed by Bove, preserved to this day.
By designing the Theater Square Bove was involved in 1816. The final draft of the area, signed by Bove, was approved in St. Petersburg in 1821.
By 1819 Bove finished projects of new buildings, leaving at Theater Square, and handed them to the Commission for the construction of buildings.
In 1821, the Moscow Governor-General approved the draft sent from St. Petersburg theater, created by Andrei Mikhailov, and at Beauvais was assigned the project finalization and implementation of construction.
Construction of the theater was completed in 1824, January 6, 1825 hosted the first performance in the new building.
Simultaneously with the establishment of the Theater Square project and the construction of the Bolshoi Theater Alexander Bove worked the device, or as if it was called, the Kremlin, garden. This garden was conceived as Bove cleverly planned park, with romantic ruins and architecture of small forms.
Particular causes the admiration of his contemporaries on the project Bove grotto, surviving. Four Doric columns as it grows out of the ground inside the grotto. Strong, heavy-weight forms of this construction is well combined with a heap of stones, reproducing the ancient Cyclopean masonry. This was a characteristic of Russian art of the time a romantic desire to combine the classics with the old.
. As chief architect of "fasadicheskoy part of the" Commission for the structure Bove greatly influenced the character development of post-Moscow, and most are referred to the housing development.
. Bove served many private bookings - built houses for the rich, noble families, merchants, officials, townspeople and others of the middle class, whose role in the social structure of cities has increased
. He has developed a new type of merchant apartment building dual-purpose - residential and commercial. Usually located on the ground floor retail shops, and at the top - residential apartment owners and those that hire out. These houses are two to three floors Bove built in China-town.
But the main role in the ensembles of the city, of course, played a public building. Among the public buildings constructed Bove, one of the most significant is Gradskaya Hospital in Grand Kaluga street. This was the first public hospital of the city, in which the supposed "to take the enjoyment of people of every state."
The idea of creating such a city hospital has arisen for the first time in 1821. However, the project, the work of Beauvais, was only adopted in 1828, when it began construction. The hospital was opened only in 1833.
Among the religious buildings Bove preserved church of St. Nicholas in Kotelniki (1821). In 1822, Beauvais built a church in the village of Archangel - the name of his wife Princess A.S. Troubetzkoy. The most significant construction Bove of this kind is the rotunda of the church of All Who Sorrow at Big Ordynka. Church of All Who Sorrow at Ordynka Street - one of the last important works Bove. She finish building after the death of the master - perhaps his brother - and was opened in 1836.
Bove died June 15, 1834 in the prime of his life. The architect was buried in a cemetery in Moscow Donskoy Monastery.