Antonio Gaudi( Architect)
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Biography Antonio Gaudi
Antonio Gaudi-and-Cornet was born June 25, 1852 in a peasant family in Reus - a small Catalan town of a hundred and fifty kilometers from Barcelona. From 1863 to 1868, Antonio was in school, converted from a former Catholic College. His first work - illustrations for this manuscript weekly "Harlequin, published by students in twelve copies.
. Since 1868 he lived in Barcelona and was preparing to enter the architectural faculty of the university, however, as we know, from 1873 to 1877 he studied at the Barcelona Provincial School of Architecture
Replacing a provincial atmosphere in a dynamic environment Reus Barcelona, having a full course of study in elementary spirit of eclecticism, Gaudi has remained very solid kind, which appears in his earliest works. In 1877, Gaudц- designed a monumental fountain to Plaza Catalunya, the hospital project and the thesis project of the assembly hall of the University. The draft was adopted by a majority vote. It is noteworthy that the school director said while he did not know, he presents a diploma to the genius or madman. In the first year of operation as a licensed architect Gaudi, along with his friend Mataro drafted houses for the workers of the cooperative Obrero Mataronese, as well as the casino project for the cooperative. With the cooperative, whose director, Salvador Pages became his friend, Gaudi worked from 1874 to 1885. In 1881, he signed a draft master plan for the cooperative Obrero Mataronese, . and two years, . simultaneously with the construction of homes for Pagesa, . architect built only in their practice pattern of industrial facilities - the turbine hall of the cooperative, . which was blocked by parabolic arches, . collected from small wooden items,
. In 1880, there are incidents, which determined the future life of Gaudi - he meets Eusebio Gц+ell and appointed by the builder of the temple Sagrada Familia.
. Don Eusebio Gц+ell acquainted with Gaudi, when he was busy at one of the first minor of its buildings, and immediately attracted a young assistant to an architect to carry out their orders
. Since then, the name Guel often side by side with the name of Gaudi.
From 1887 to 1893 raises Gaudi Palace in Astorga. This is the most "neo-Gothic" buildings of the architect, the most rigorous and dry: a plan in the form of a Greek cross, a purely feudal nature of the architecture. Other works of that time - College Tereziano (1888-1890), House Botines in Leon (1891-1894), building missions in Tangier (Draft) (1892-1893), warehouses Guel in Garraf (1895-1900).
. As a result of repeated trips to England, Don Eusebio Gц+ell burning with a desire to build a "garden city"
. Treasury of a large area (15 hectares) is located on the hillside at the highest point when the border district of Barcelona. Gц+ell commissioned Gaudц- project plan, specifying all the necessary conditions. But later, Don Guel abandoned the whole business. In ready-to-building of sections leaving only boulders, which were marked by their geometric centers. Of the projected sixty homes in the park there are only two.
Working on the Park Gц+ell, the architect until 1906 came on the scene daily, and this year, living in the Park, been there several times a day. In fact, Park immediately became a work space art, and it October 20, 1906 with a reception in honor of the first congress dedicated to Catalan. Between 1907 and 1910 was built the famous "infinite" bench minor finishing operations continued until 1914. Already in 1922, despite resistance from some members of the community, objecting to "useless" venture, Park Gц+ell was purchased by the city. Last completed work Gaula became Mila House (1906-1910) - the most irreproachable in terms of artistic taste of today. Unconditional strangeness of this facility in the eyes of his contemporaries, who did not have a sample for comparison, is reflected in not without the ironic title of shade houses entrenched among barselontsov: La Pedrera - "quarry.
. Construction of the Sagrada Familia, also known as the temple of the remission of sins, was launched without the participation of Gaudi and will be completed without its participation, being at the same time, his "Opera Magna" - the main product
. The idea of the church came not from the church community - it launched JosцL Marц-a Bokabelya, a shopkeeper and scribe in one person.
. In 1876, the idea evolved, and the draft of a new temple was commissioned by the architect Francisco Villar, later became director of the School of Architecture
. At this time the young Antoni Gaudц- worked for Villar draftsman, which proved to be significant.
. Due to continuous disagreements Villar resigned, the council offered to lead the work Martorell, Martorell but found it inconvenient for himself and proposed to entrust the management of the construction of his young assistant - Antonio Gaudi
. Adopting a construction management on Nov. 3, 1883, Gaudi did not leave him until his death.
With the development of the creative personality of the architect and the project developed Sagrada Familia. Between 1892 and 1917 created new designs for the facade, called passionate, and in 1906 was first published sketch of the temple complex. Between 1898 and 1925 developed a series of four master version of constructive solutions aisles.
The towers were erected in front of Christmas gradually. Construction of the first was completed in 1918, and the crown of its bell tower - in January 1926. Is the only completed part of the temple, which the artist was able to see embodied in nature.
. Many working on the sketches, Gaudi By 1916, he graduated from plaster model showing the overall image-spatial solution of the temple, and a separate conceptual models of the facade of Fame - the main facade of the complex.
. Sagrada Familia - a set of, ,
. The facade is made of sandstone
. Gaudi thought it entirely multicolored. Pommel bell-faced glass mosaic of Murano, elected Gaudi, with all its expensive for the invincible strength.
Personal life, besides work, the Gaudi was. The only events to which he responded sharply, it is the death of friends: friend and assistant Francisco Berenguer (1914), customer, patron and friend Eusebio Gц+ell (1918). June 7, 1926 Gaudi was hit by a tram and died three days later. He is buried in the crypt of the Sagrada Familia cathedral, whose construction has devoted forty-three years of life.
He was a man at the same time energetic and very soft and therefore often tried to appear tougher than it actually was. Short of stature, with small blue eyes, which, according to all, quite mastered the attention of the interlocutor, Gaudi had a strong character.