SANTA Rafael( Ap)
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Biography SANTA Rafael
Raphael was born on April 6, 1483 in the family court poet and painter of the Dukes of Urbino, Giovanni Santi.
Giovanni Santi was the first teacher of Raphael, and early childhood the boy was able to instill a taste for beauty, to acquaint him with the world of contemporary art. Thanks to his father's connections, made friends with his son, Rafael Federico da Montefeltro, Gvidobaldo. Throughout his life he enjoyed the friendly support and patronage of his wife, Elizabeth Gonzaga.
In 1491, Rafael lost his mother, and three years later, in 1494, his father died. Eleven-year-boy was left an orphan in the care of his uncle Fra Bartolomeo, who is not so much worried about the fate of his nephew, how infinitely sued stepmother Rafael Bernardino. Judging by the correspondence of Raphael, warmth and closeness of kinship, he is in communion with his other uncle, brother, mother, Simon Chiarla.
. After the death of his father for about five years the boy attended the workshop of the Dukes of Urbino court painter Timoteo Viti
In 1500, Rafael arrived in Perugia, where he entered the studio Perugino, in the years leading representative of the Umbrian school. The early period of creativity Raphael rightly called "perudzhinovskim" and note the strong dependence of the young artist from the teacher.
. Roughly between 1503 and 1504 years by order of the family Albitstsini Rafael wrote for the church of San Francesco in the small town of Citta di Castello altarpiece Betrothal of Mary "- a work which is worthy completed early period of his creativity.
. In 1503 Perugino moved from his studio in Florence, where after him came the fall of 1504, Rafael
For four years (not counting travel then to Perugia, then in Urbino) stay in Florence Raphael created the famous painting Madonnas.
In 1507 he briefly returned to Urbino. And in 1508, Rafael was invited by Pope Julius II in Rome for the painting front apartments in the old Vatican Palace.
The first relates to the construction of Raphael in 1514. First, he created a small church of Saint-Elji degli Orefichi (begun in 1509). It is in terms of a Greek cross with very short branches and is covered with a light spherical dome with a drum on the sails.
After the death of Bramante in 1514 Leo X Raphael appointed chief architect for the construction of the new Cathedral of St.. Peter, as a Commissioner he was engaged in the protection of antiquities and monuments of ancient Rome census.
From 1506 to 1514 the construction of the Cathedral of St.. Peter was in the hands of Bramante, which, however, managed to partially withdraw podnaruzhnye central pillars and arches of the temple.
. Direct follower of Bramante, Raphael returned to the traditional form of a plan of church buildings in the form of a Latin cross
. He conceives a domed building with three identical apse, the fourth side of which is developed in a highly elongated three-nave basilica. But Rafael did not have time to complete his plan.
Raphael has developed its own school in Rome, where occurred Excellence artists. Raphael lived in Rome, as the prince, surrounded by disciples and admirers. His studio - is a complex and very active organization, which experienced assistants different specialization developed, executed, implemented the plans of the teacher. In letters to Bembo and Bibby Raphael appears as an active organizer, artist, located in the relentless search for a man with an endless curiosity for knowledge.
The private life of Rafael Little is known, much more legends. During his life around the personality of the artist emerged halo of glory and public worship. Even Vasari, . biography which gave rise to many legends about the subsequent Raffaele, . saw in him and in his way of life of the artist's ideal-court, . gifted, . living in luxury and wealth of human, . who knows how to behave in society, . maintain an academic conversation, . has a pleasant appearance and refined manners, . surrounded by love and the universal veneration,
Fate favored Raphael: in Rome, he found a strong and powerful patrons. Admirer of his talent was Julius II. After the death of Julius II, Rafael served orders of Leo X, who became pope in 1513. Raphael died unexpectedly after a short illness, on his birthday - April 6, 1520. Many of his death was perceived as the death of art - so great was the glory of the artist and the public was his reverence. According to the testament, Raphael was buried in the Pantheon, among the great people of Italy.