RICHARDSON Henry( Architect)
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Biography RICHARDSON Henry
Henry Hobson Richardson was born Sept. 29, 1838 in New Orleans. In 1855-1859 years he studied architecture at Harvard University. Richardson was one of the first American architects, who studied in France. He studied at the ц+cole des Beaux Arts in the studio L.D. Andre (1860-1862). Completed training for Richardson in the studio of Theodore Labrusta - elder brother of prominent French architect Henri-rationalist Labrusta, where he worked as a draftsman.
Richardson returned to the U.S. in October 1965. In November 1866 he is working on a church in Springfield. His architectural career has helped a happy marriage to Julia Gorham Hayden in Boston on Jan. 3, 1867. Here, in 1867, Henry opened an architectural office in partnership with Charles D. Gembrillom, with whom he worked and then eleven years.
Early construction of the architect, such as the Church of St.. Trinity (1872-1877) in Boston, differed little from the common French eclectic variations on the theme of Romanesque architecture. The impetus for the emergence of such variations was incurred in 1860 and rose toward the end of the century interest in the archaic forms of art. In such buildings the 1880's as a library in Quincy, Station Chestnut Hill, court and prison complex in Pittsburgh, he broke decisively with attempts to literally play the Romanesque style. Architect creates a new system of forms, which later became the basis for the development of Romanesque architecture in the modern line.
. Buildings distinguished Richardson emphasized monumentality, use roughly axed stone blocks for a wall, the use of ornamental elements.
. One of the founders and the greatest masters of "shingle style" Richardson and in the field of architecture suburban house remained true to his principles of innovation, based on tradition
. His work in this area was a "combination of a tradition of wooden construction and creative freedom within this tradition. "Regionalism" brought together works of Richardson with the search of his English contemporaries - the first generation of architects "Arts and Crafts Movement" and included it in the mainstream of progressive trends which anticipated Art Nouveau architecture.
. Creativity Richardson was one of the most striking manifestations of the romantic tradition in architecture of the seventies, eighties
. However, it is already possible to detect trends that were outside this tradition, and led to convergence of neo-romantic and modern trends neoklassitsisticheskogo. In an effort to create in the form of their buildings the impression of monumentality, strength, stability, Richardson came to the idea of timeless universality of architectural form, that is on the path leading to the neo-classical.
. Explicit tribute Richardson gave the classical tradition in his latest building - wholesale warehouse store Marshall Fields in Chicago
. Launched in 1885, the wholesale store Marshall Field in Chicago was the best work of Richardson. It was completed in the year following the death of the architect, who died April 27, 1886.
This building with massive stone walls, occupies a special position in the history of Chicago in general. First of all, it has stimulated the work of the Chicago school, and individual characteristics of this facility are reflected in other buildings erected in the business district of Chicago in 1880.
. At Richardson influenced European architecture in England
. The first publication in English journals buildings of Richardson and other architects "Romanesque revival" refer to 1880 years. Since that time, Richardson's influence can be noted on the suburban built architect Movement Arts and Crafts ". In the construction of public buildings, this effect can be traced in the work of H. Townsend.
Creativity Richardson was also an important source of national direction for the Finnish architecture of the early twentieth century.