TANG Kenzo( Architect)
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Biography TANG Kenzo
Kenzo Tange was born on November 4, 1913 in Imabari (Ehime Prefecture on Shikoku). The school years passed in in Hiroshima
. On the faculty of Architecture, University of Tokyo Tange entered in 1935, and in 1938, after its end, began working in the studio of architect Kunio Maekava.
. In the period of work at Maekavy Tange wrote his first literary work - an essay about Michelangelo (1939)
Activities began in Tanga hard for Japanese people, period - in the second half of 1930. Convolution of the peace-building impact, especially on the supporters of the "new architecture", seeking to remain true to its principles. Difficulty and studio Maekavy. Due to the lack of Tanga was forced in 1941 to go to graduate school of Tokyo University.
. In the early postwar years, Tanga created several urban development projects, the largest of which was the general plan of Hiroshima, developed together with Assad, Otani, and Ishikawa in 1947
. He followed the principles of functionalism, but sought to embody and thoughts that go beyond its limits. Work on a master plan of Hiroshima began to tango like a preparatory phase to the design of the memorial complex of the world in the city (1949-1956).
. This ensemble - a stern reminder of the vulnerability of human values and their courageous approval
. At the core composition - a purely national in spirit to the idea of space-symbol.
Memorial in Hiroshima was the first work of Japanese architect who cause something substantially new in the development of modern architecture. Tange was one of the most famous and influential architects of our time. He became the sole ruler and architectural minds of young people in Japan, pushing into the background of the old leaders - Maekavu, Sakakuru, Raymond.
. In 1953 was completed Tange-designed children's library in Hiroshima.
. In 1951-1953 Tanga builds his own house in a suburb of Tokyo
. Here he uses - perhaps the only time - the traditional materials: wood, tile, walls, wrapped in rice paper.
. This was the only exception, the activities of Tanga in 1950 was associated with the construction of large public buildings, types of which were new to Japan
. Most of the orders of his shop is building for the elected bodies of local administration.
In 1952-1957 years he worked on a series of Tanga municipality in Tokyo.
An important step in the development of plastic language of architecture was the creation Tanga hall meetings in the city of Shizuoka (1956-1957), now used as an indoor stadium.
The town hall in Kurasiki (1958-1960), which seems a powerful monolith, vysyaschimsya among the dusty square cozy old town, it became the final chord of creativity in Tanga 1950. Contrastly entered in the current environment, it has consolidated the role of the center of the historic core of the city, which at the turn of the 1960's was embroiled in an active industrial development. This conscious gesture, decided the fate of the old quarters - the certificate of conviction Tanga that needed drastic changes.
. Theme traditions and their role for the creation of contemporary artworks in the 1950's dominated the literary works of Tanga
. A great essay in the book "Katsura. Tradition and Creativity in Japanese Architecture "(1960) it seems to summarize his thoughts about the duality of the Japanese tradition, seeks to objectively show the struggle in her two cultures - the common people and the aristocratic. By a similar type of essays is the book about the shrine in Ise, which was published two years later.
By the end of 1950 a variety of buildings, designed by Tange, was already quite a lot. All of them, however, with the exception of the memorial in Hiroshima, drowned in a chaotic urban environment. Their full use and perception of disorder and prevent the immediate environment, and the accident of their place in the city.
. In 1961 he led a group of "URTEK", which sought to combine architecture with the theory
. The peak of his creative career Tange was a complex of sports facilities built for the Olympic Games in 1964, held in Tokyo.
In 1963-1964, the project Tanga, also developed with the participation Tsuboi, was built by the Cathedral of St.. Maria Tokyo.
The first half of 1960 - the most fruitful period for Tanga. Building, which completed this period, the building became the center of communications in Kofu, Yamanashi Prefecture (1962-1967).
New Tange able to link their ideas with the real tasks of reconstruction and development of the city center in the design of the Yugoslav city of Skopje, which was destroyed by an earthquake in 1963. At the center of the project under the auspices of the UN in 1964 was an international competition, first prize was awarded Tange and his team.
. The main idea of the project was to make a clear structure to the space center, organizing a coherent system of transport communications and creating a major symbolic forms, to facilitate people to perception of the city as a whole
. Symbols, according to Tang, must express the nature of urban spaces in such a way as to encourage citizens to participate in public life.
. In the drafting of the World Exhibition EXPO 70 in Osaka, Tange, . Faced with a particularly complex forms of collective labor, . able, . however, . tact and wisdom to deeply personal idea, . determine the general nature of the complex, . without prejudice to the individuality of other architects,
Along with the works for the exhibition Tanga led a series of architectural and urban projects that were carried out by the group "URTEK" and his workshop in the University of Tokyo. Among them - a master plan for the sports park, Flushing Meadows, New York (1967), master plans of the center of Kyoto (1967-1968), Morioka (1970-1971), a sports center and the airport in Kuwait (1969), station in Skopje ( 1970).
. Thoughts Tanga takes more study on resettlement throughout the Japanese archipelago, have become in the minds of the Japanese thinking problems of survival or disastrous decline of the nation
. In 1967 he published a study entitled "The image of the Japanese archipelago in the future", . which proved the saving transition from the chaotic development of urban agglomerations around "sverhgorodov" to the linear system, . based on powerful communication trunk, . which would link into an organic whole, all centers of the country,
. Freedom of spatial movement, facilitating social contacts, leads Tanga to reflect on the transition to the "open society" and its beneficial effects.
All search and delusions Tanga is invariably a great artist. And the results of his work - like any true artist - significant of those concepts, which he formulates.