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Felten Yury Matveyevich

( Architect)

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Biography Felten Yury Matveyevich
photo Felten Yury Matveyevich
Georg Friedrich Felten, or, as the Russian version, Yuri Matveyevich Felten, born in 1730. His father, Matthias Felten May 12, 1725 he was appointed steward at the newly established St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In 1738, Felten's daughter Catherine married a professor of physics and mathematics GV. Kraft. Things were going well until the head of the family was alive, but 18 April 1736 Matthias Felten died. There were widows, children, teenagers - a daughter and two sons. Kraft took over the care of a family of close relatives. In 1744, Kraft returned to his native Tubingen called home and left a family in St. Petersburg.

Felten by the time the senior class graduated from high school, opened at the Academy of Sciences. After gymnasium course he was quite prepared to continue studies at Tubingen University, where for several years he studied at Kraft mathematical and physical sciences.

In autumn 1749 Felten returned to St. Petersburg. In November of that year, Felten filed a petition to the Empress Elizabeth of admission.

In December 1749 the desire Yuri realized. His outstanding ability and good previous training quickly pushed it into the classroom at the Academy. In November 1751, having won the necessary course of Science, Felten filed a petition for determination of its in academic service.

Since March 1752 Felten was enlisted to serve in the Academy architect's Gezalim. In November 1754 Felten asked permission in the academic office to go "to the chief architect of Mr. Count Rastrelli for practical exercises in the architecture, when the Academy no work will be". And in September 1755 Felten began to perform tasks in a meeting at the Office of the buildings team Rastrelli, still not having it in position.

. Soon, Rastrelli asked to enroll Felten zaarhitektorom so that he could show, in fact, the natural inclination to architecture Civilis "
. Decree of the Senate on 20 December 1755 Velten was sworn in and enrolled at the service.

1760-1770-s were a period of formation and flowering of the talent of the architect. When you become an architect, he continued to work in the Winter Palace and court administration. After the departure of Rastrelli, the main architects were Vallin de la Mothe and Felten.

Name Felten associated with the creation of remarkable buildings, which became the beginning of the modern State Hermitage Museum.

It Felten implement construction. He's in the years 1763-1766 has developed a constructive basis and the Hanging Gardens built a residential south pavilion (the so-called Little Palace) and, later, in 1769-1775, respectively, as they were built side gallery, intended to house the paintings.

. The project Felten in the years 1775-1785 was built "the building in line with the Hermitage" (large, or Old, Hermitage)
.

In June 1770 the Empress followed the order to install the lattice near the Summer Garden. The perfection of the lattice of the Summer Garden, a classical simplicity and perfection of its strict graphic designs permanently chained to the attention. She became a kind of standard facilities such.

In 1773 at the Palace Square Felten rebuilt house, which was called Glazovskij - on behalf of the owner of Captain in. Glazov. Successfully completed the architect led the commission to command the Empress December 20, 1778 to transform the area "against the Imperial Winter Palace, between the eastern corner of the Admiralty and the Million-street". About a month later, on Jan. 26, 1779, the Academy of Fine Arts was a competition for the construction area.

In October, the Academy discussed the results of the competition. Preference was given to the model with portal Doric and Corinthian orders entablement ... at the opening note, accustomed during the said model, a writer it was the architect Felten.

In 1778, Felten engaged project Orphanage in St. Petersburg. At the same time it was charged with designing and building of "burgess School girls'. Architect differently solves two facades of the building: from the Neva River and from the city. The main building forms a semicircle, limiting the area from which begins the road to the city. The facade has a three-part division, underlined entrances, central of which is highlighted by pilasters, combine the second and third floors.

Each of these buildings for their own good, and each - this is quite mature, the perfect type of building. Limit concise plan combined with perfection of form and expressive silhouette, where the warrant is playing an active role.

. The first experience in this area architect Felten acquired in 1765 when, in accordance with the decree of 29 September 1764, he participated in the competition for the rehabilitation project by the time three times a burning belfry Peter and Paul Cathedral
. Felten had a chance to build more temples. Four Protestant churches, two of them in St. Petersburg - St.. Catherine (1768-1771); SW. Anna (1775-1779), two Orthodox - the prophet John the Baptist (1776-1778), Cesme Church, Armenian Gregorian Church (1771-1780).

Among the churches built by Felten can distinguish two rows of buildings. Some of them are made in the typical forms of early classicism, with the columns of the portico at the entrance (Church of St.. Catherine and Armenian), open semi-rotunda (Church of St.. Anna), others - in lozhnogoticheskom style.

Much time was occupied Felten teaching work. By decision of the Council of the Academy May 30, 1775 "for the departure of Mr. de la Mothe adjunct architectural class assigned Herr Professor Felten". On June 1, 1775, he was joined the staff of the Academy with the rank of senior professor with a salary of 600 rubles a year.

. Failure to continue the creative work, the difficulty of competition with the new generation of architects forced aging Felten fully concentrate on the Academy
. In July 1785 "... a senior professor and member of the Council of State Councilor Mr. Yuri Felten Matveyevich in rewarding excellent talents and received long-term benefits ..." was announced and approved by the Associate Rector. Came fame and broader: even in 1783, Felten was elected a correspondent of the French Royal Academy.

In April 1789, at the suggestion of President I.I. Betsky, the Extraordinary Assembly of the Council instead of Baron P.F. Maltitsa director was appointed Felten. The dismissal of the architect of the post in December 1794 was likely due to the fact that he was deprived of support Betsky, formed his presidential duties. Departure from the Academy Felten without fame, without honor. Request to award him was dismissed.

Died architect Yury Velten Matveyevich June 14, 1801.


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