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Al-Vase Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad

( Special Interests)

Comments for Al-Vase Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad
Biography Al-Vase Al-Hasan ibn Muhammad
Al-Hassan ibn Mohammed al-vase, known in Europe under the name of Leo more Africans, born in Grenada. After the fall of this last stronghold of Moorish rule in Spain, the parents of the future traveler - the noble and rich people - emigrated to Morocco. An African lion was the last important representative of Arab geography on the verge of the Middle Ages and modern times. He was educated at the University of Fez - one of the largest research centers of the then Muslim world.

As envoy ruler of Morocco Arab traveler went to North Africa, as well as Niger, Sudan, Timbuktu and Born. His "Description of Africa", commissioned by Pope Leo X, until the XIX century was the main source of information on North Africa (Maghreb).

Love to travel manifested in his very early. After graduation, he went to the wanderings of the Maghreb countries as a lawyer and notary public, and sometimes engaged in trade. Sultan of Morocco gave him diplomatic assignments.

French scientist, Monie, who has studied the routes of Leo Africans, identifies the following of his journey: 1. From Fez to Constantinople and the Middle East (1507-1508).

2. First trip to Timbuktu (winter 1509/10 and 1510/11), during which Leo The African participated in the Moroccan diplomatic mission to the court songayskogo askii (king) Mohammed. By this time, the primacy of Western Sudan has won a state Songhai, whose capital was the town of Gao on the Niger, and cultural center of Timbuktu remained. It was in Timbuktu was at the time the court askii.

3. Second journey to Timbuktu, and thence to Egypt by the Lake Chad (mid 1512 - early 1514).

The last expedition was the greatest value to science. Arab merchants and to Leo Africans have been in the country Hausa (now Northern Nigeria), in the States Born and Gaoga located in the Lake Chad. However, The African Lion - the first one was a description of these places.

While merchants mastered a new way of Oualata in Egypt through the area of Lake Chad. Road through Tripolitania and Fezzan, . enjoyed in the Middle Ages those, . who traveled from western Sudan into Egypt, . left derelict century earlier because of the Arab robbers, . operating on the coast, the sea the same way, . connecting the Maghreb and Egypt, . become too dangerous because of attacks by Christian corsairs, . which were based on Rhodes and Sicily.,

. An African lion in Oualata joined, probably, to the merchant caravans, bound for Cairo through the country Hausa.

. Reaching Gao (obviously, on land, and not on the Niger), he went to the kingdom of Bornu - possibly through Agadez and Kano.

. Following the shore of Lake Chad, the traveler across the kingdom and neighboring Born - Gaoga
. From the capital - Yao - the caravan headed to Darfur. There forty days straight road to Assiut in Egypt, but Leo Afrika did detour to visit in Dongola.

According to assumptions Moni, traveler reached in Cairo in early 1514 and in Alexandria, sat on the merchant ship bound for Morocco. In this case, he returned to Fairy in February - March 1514.

4. The second journey from Fez to Constantinople, thence to Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula.

. This journey has played a crucial role in the biography of Leo Africans: returning home after performing another diplomatic assignment, apparently in 1518, he was captured by Sicilian pirates on the transition between Tripoli and Tunis.

. Young traveler could comprehend the terrible fate galley slave
. However, his pirate captors realized that, as such, an Arab scholar he will bring great benefits, and, as a special rarity, with rare animals for Rome - Giraffes - presented as a gift to Pope Leo X. Fortunately the captive Arabs, Pope patronized the sciences and arts in the continuation of the traditions of his father, Lorenzo de 'Medici the Magnificent. He reacted favorably to the widely educated prisoner "Moor", gave him the opportunity to teach in Italy, the Arabic language and writing memoirs about his travels. Pre-al-Vazanu had to switch to Christianity when he was christened Giovanni Leone. Hence his nickname: The African Lion. In his writings he described himself in Arabic Iuhanna al-Asad al-Garnati.

Convert created all the conditions for literary activity. He is perfectly mastered Italian and Latin and in 1526 graduated from the Italian version of his work "History and description AfrikiTimbuktu and Born. His "Description of Africa", commissioned by Pope Leo X, until the XIX century was the main source of information on North Africa (Maghreb).

Love to travel manifested in his very early. After graduation, he went to the wanderings of the Maghreb countries as a lawyer and notary public, and sometimes engaged in trade. Sultan of Morocco gave him diplomatic assignments.

French scientist, Monie, who has studied the routes of Leo Africans, identifies the following of his journey: 1. From Fez to Constantinople and the Middle East (1507-1508).

2. First trip to Timbuktu (winter 1509/10 and 1510/11), during which Leo The African participated in the Moroccan diplomatic mission to the court songayskogo askii (king) Mohammed. By this time, the primacy of Western Sudan has won a state Songhai, whose capital was the town of Gao on the Niger, and cultural center of Timbuktu remained. It was in Timbuktu was at the time the court askii.

3. Second journey to Timbuktu, and thence to Egypt by the Lake Chad (mid 1512 - early 1514).

The last expedition was the greatest value to science. Arab merchants and to Leo Africans have been in the country Hausa (now Northern Nigeria), in the States Born and Gaoga located in the Lake Chad. However, The African Lion - the first one was a description of these places.

While merchants mastered a new way of Oualata in Egypt through the area of Lake Chad. Road through Tripolitania and Fezzan, . enjoyed in the Middle Ages those, . who traveled from western Sudan into Egypt, . left derelict century earlier because of the Arab robbers, . operating on the coast, the sea the same way, . connecting the Maghreb and Egypt, . become too dangerous because of attacks by Christian corsairs, . which were based on Rhodes and Sicily.,

. An African lion in Oualata joined, probably, to the merchant caravans, bound for Cairo through the country Hausa.

. Reaching Gao (obviously, on land, and not on the Niger), he went to the kingdom of Bornu - possibly through Agadez and Kano.

. Following the shore of Lake Chad, the traveler across the kingdom and neighboring Born - Gaoga
. From the capital - Yao - the caravan headed to Darfur. There forty days straight road to Assiut in Egypt, but Leo Afrika did detour to visit in Dongola.

According to assumptions Moni, traveler reached in Cairo in early 1514 and in Alexandria, sat on the merchant ship bound for Morocco. In this case, he returned to Fairy in February - March 1514.

4. The second journey from Fez to Constantinople, thence to Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula.

. This journey has played a crucial role in the biography of Leo Africans: returning home after performing another diplomatic assignment, apparently in 1518, he was captured by Sicilian pirates on the transition between Tripoli and Tunis.

. Young traveler could comprehend the terrible fate galley slave
. However, his pirate captors realized that, as such, an Arab scholar he will bring great benefits, and, as a special rarity, with rare animals for Rome - Giraffes - presented as a gift to Pope Leo X. Fortunately the captive Arabs, Pope patronized the sciences and arts in the continuation of the traditions of his father, Lorenzo de 'Medici the Magnificent. He reacted favorably to the widely educated prisoner "Moor", gave him the opportunity to teach in Italy, the Arabic language and writing memoirs about his travels. Pre-al-Vazanu had to switch to Christianity when he was christened Giovanni Leone. Hence his nickname: The African Lion. In his writings he described himself in Arabic Iuhanna al-Asad al-Garnati.

Convert created all the conditions for literary activity. He is perfectly mastered Italian and Latin and in 1526 graduated from the Italian version of his work "History and description of Africa and noteworthy items, it contained". In 1550 the manuscript first appeared.

By this time, Pope Leo X had long been dead. Leo Africans managed to return to the Maghreb, where he again took their first faith. He died in Tunis about 1552.

In an era of great geographical discoveries of the reading public was not easy to impress a description of the unknown and distant lands. Why labor Leo Africans quickly became so popular: in 1556 the book was translated into French and Latin, . 1600 English, . then a number of other Western European languages? "Description of Africa" - Encyclopedic work, . and in his writing closely intertwined these Arab and European geographies,
. The author devotes much space history and economics, life and morals of people, but above all - he geographer.

Description of provinces, cities and mountains of Morocco was only one of nine books of labor Lion Africans, second order. The first tells us about Africa in general and tribal. The third is devoted specifically Fesu - then the capital of Morocco, . fourth - Tlemcen, . fifth - Bijan and Tunisia, . sixth - Tripolitania, . seventh - States of Sudan, . eighth - Egypt, . ninth gives a brief description of the rivers, . Animals, . fish, . birds, . minerals and plants of the African continent.,

. Some authors have questioned the integrity of Leo Africans, suggesting that he had been by no means all countries that have described
. But here is the opinion of one of the leading specialists in historical geography, editor of the French edition of "Description of Africa" Schaefer in the introduction to this work: "The details given by the African Lion on the Maghreb, differ scrupulous accuracy. Recent observations have confirmed the validity of his claims, even those who seemed to have cast doubts.


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