Alihanov Abram( Soviet scientist, researcher interactions of gamma rays with matter)
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Biography Alihanov Abram
Abram was born in March 1904 in Kars (not to be confused with Korea!), On the distant outskirts of Russia, the family of a railway engine driver. A few years Alikhanov family moved to Tiflis (now Tbilisi), which settled in a small house with a tiny yard. In eight years Alihanov entered Tiflis real school.
The First World War. Family Alikhanov returned to Armenia, where, despite all the difficulties and hardships, the parents did everything possible to educate children. Boy Alikhanov, only one family remained in Tiflis, and continued to study while living with her aunt.
In 1919 the family fled from persecution Alikhanov Turks. Armenian refugees without property, the hungry, clothed in rags, sought to break into the Tiflis. With the help of friends of his father's family Alikhanov received a pass in Tiflis and permanently settled in Georgia.
In 1921, Abram Alihanov graduated from a technical school and entered the chemical department Tiflis Polytechnic Institute. When seriously ill father, Alikhanov entered the cashier Tiflis mill, standing on the river Kura. A small number of earnings to support the family. Despite the over-employment in the workplace and in the institute, youth Alihanov found time to conduct chemical experiments, which was carried away. These experiments led to the horror of domestic, as threatened by explosions.
Two years later, in 1923, Alikhanov went to Leningrad and entered the Polytechnic Institute. Chemistry abandoned. It involves physical and Mechanics, based A. F. Ioffe 1923. Learn difficult. Academician and. V. Obreimov in his memoirs wrote: "Polytechnic Institute are not heated, the temperature in the classroom fell. When it was impossible to teach, the Institute closed until the warmer days. In the spring, probably in May, classes resumed on 1 August. August - holiday. Starting from September 1 in laboratories engaged in before the frost. Roofs are not painted, and they began to flow ". Beginner experimental physicist in the years primarily faced with the lack of materials and devices. Typically, appliances were outdated received Polytechnic Institute before the revolution. In 1923 A. F. Ioffe organized Physico-Technical Institute in unfinished and reconstructed building opposite the Polytechnic Institute.
Alihanov was attracted to scientific work in the Physical-Technical Institute in 1927, when he was still a student. The existing four-year institution primarily engaged in the problems of solid state physics and X-ray analysis of crystals.
Already in the first work by the experimenter Alihanov showed himself capable of noticing the subtleties that make up the essence of the problem, and make the right conclusion. The first work Alihanov performed in X-ray lab. He researched different crystalline structures by X-rays. Installation was fairly primitive.
In 1930 he arrived in Leningrad, a young graduate of the University of Minsk (later Academician) Leo Artsimovich. Alihanov and his younger brother Artem Alihan'yan also has worked in the Physico-Technical Institute, became good friends with a newcomer. Many years later they all worked together. Alikhanov and Artsimovich done together first job in the field of optics of X-rays. From a series of papers on this topic emphasizes the study of total internal reflection of X-rays from thin layers of different materials. Daunting experience to young experimenters directly demonstrated the applicability of classical optics, Fresnel and Maxwell to the phenomena of reflection of hard X-rays from transparent and absorbing media. This phenomenon, studied more than 40 years ago, in recent years attracted the attention of many astrophysicists. Work Alikhanova Artsnmovicha and helped create some basic understanding of optics X-ray. The optical constants obtained by scientists in the early 30's, proved to be very necessary when creating a modern X-ray telescopes. They also played an important role in the development of techniques for studying fundamental questions of biophysics, molecular structures of large proteins.
It is appropriate to note that Alihanov lifelong interest in issues of Biophysics and the use of physical methods in the fight against diseases such as malignant tumors. In this regard it was unanimous with Frederic Joliot-Curie, who met and was friendly. The first steps in treatment of tumors by irradiation were taken Alikhanov and his staff, when the head of the Theoretical Department of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, academician and. YA. Pomeranchuk ill with cancer of the esophagus.
30-ies - beginning of an era of great discoveries in nuclear physics. Discovery of the neutron and a positron is very interested physicists around the world. On the discovery of artificial radioactivity wife says Joliot-Curie in Leningrad.
Alikhanov, switching to nuclear physics, began with what has developed methods for investigating the energy spectra of positrons. He perfected the classic magnetic spectrometer and combined it with a system of gas-discharge counters, working on the coincidence. This allowed Alikhanov observe the appearance of positrons and measure their energy spectrum at low-intensity beam of particles on the background of a powerful gamma-ray radiation sources. The modern theory of positron-electron pairs by gamma rays contains as the main experimental material results Alikhanov.
In 1934 he opened a new phenomenon - the emission of positrons by heavy radioactive nuclei, which occurs as a result of internal conversion of energy of excited nuclei. This positron conversion confirmed relativistic quantum mechanics of Dirac. Until 1937 the interests of the Federation State Scientific Center and the staff of his laboratory were mainly associated with the problems of relativistic quantum mechanics.
Another topical issue at the time were the cosmic rays. Powerful accelerators have not yet exist. Cosmic rays were the only source of high energy particles, and under the leadership Alikhanova in 1941, preparing high-altitude expedition to the Pamirs, which was planned to study the flux of cosmic rays. Alihanov set experiments that were to prove the existence of "ghost" particles - neutrinos. The Great Patriotic War prevented the continuation of the experiments and for one year pushed so carefully prepared by high-altitude expedition. It took place only in 1942. Instead Pamir decided to go to Mount Aragats in Armenia.
A small group of physicists, among whom were a. I. Alikhanov, A. I. And Alihan'yan and. YA. Pomeranchuk, went on a river boat from Kazan, where at that time was evacuated Physico-Technical Institute, to Astrakhan. Here, she moved to the Marine steamer in Baku. From Baku had to go by rail to Yerevan. This trip in an atmosphere of the first year of the war, when many evacuated factories and institutions, has been very difficult. The expedition members themselves were engaged in packing and loading equipment.
Arrival Alikhanova with a group of highly qualified physicists helped spur a revitalization of physical science and teaching it to Armenia. I. YA. Pomeranchuk, who was not involved in the first phase of research, read a few lectures.
At Aragats at an altitude of 3200 meters of the expedition was to investigate the composition of cosmic rays.
In late summer 1941 at the Aragats rose and. YA. Pomeranchuk. He participated in the discussion of the first "hot" measurements obtained by experimenters.
Particularly difficult was the preparation for experiments under water. The hardware for these experiments, physicists have tried in Yerevan in the basement of the famous store wines at shestidesyatimetrovoy depth and in one of the caves Amberd Valley. Now this equipment, raised to the top of Aragats, had to put them into the deep mountain lake Karagel with a raft of special design.
Alihanov hurry. The program outlined his research was extensive and high-altitude summer - short. Exceptional importance he attached to the experiments under the water, where there was no background radioactivity. Raft with dexterity experienced craftsmen carpenters erecting station employees to Aragats. A member of the expedition. M. Nemenov prepared for installation on a raft ionization chamber with a lead filter. Abram and his brother were preparing to dive counters. All this work, . require all large labor, . successfully completed, . and one fine morning, "... from the gently sloping shores of Lake pushed off a strange construction, . from a distance looked like a floating well with a collar and tied to a rope "bucket" of unusual shape, . - In this "antivedro" at the depth of the lake water has not penetrated and could not fill the hidden devices there, . available only cosmic rays ",
As a result of the first expedition to Aragats group Alikhanova found in cosmic-ray protons are relatively small energies.
In the summer of 1942 in Moscow, held a closed meeting of scientists. It was attended, along with officials of Physics A. F. Joffe and P. L. Kapitsa, a geologist in. I. Vernadsky and radiochemist In. G. Khlopin. None of these outstanding scientists not previously involved in atomic research. Meanwhile, the meeting was a conversation that's about it. The Soviet Government has received information that Germany and the U.S. in a top-secret conditions being urgent work to create a new super-power nuclear weapons. We have similar activities were carried out.
Some experience of nuclear research was at the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute. In 1930 academician A. F. Joffe proposed a number of its employees to do nuclear physics, only then begun to grow in many countries. Apparently, A. F. Joffe already clear idea of this promising new field. With her he had the opportunity to meet during their visits to Marie Curie at the Radium Institute in Paris, and Ernest Rutherford in Kevendishskoy laboratory in Cambridge.
In 1933, a. F. Joffe invited to Leningrad Nobel laureates, . young French scientists Irene and Frederic Joliot-Curie, . using, . thus, . opportunity to familiarize their staff with a view, . being done in other countries in the study of physics of the atomic nucleus,
A young officer of the Institute Abraham Alikhanov carried away by a new field of physics, and it became his life.
In late autumn of 1942 Alihanov arrived in Moscow along with I. V. Kurchatov, shortly designated by the State Committee of Defense supervisor "uranium problem". Kurchatov had been given broad discretion in selecting people, great facilities and organizational rights. A. I. Alikhanov, AND. K. Kikoin, I. B. Zel'dovich and T. N. Fleur - the first group of scientists who began working with Kurchatov on the problems associated with the use of atomic energy.
Immediately after the first organizational steps have begun work on the atomic nucleus. First they were in the room of the Seismological Institute in Pyzhevskii Lane.
In the early years of the war Alihanov acquainted with Academician P. L. Kapitsa. A few months after the call Alikhanova from Yerevan to Moscow, and led them Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems of the USSR in the summer of 1943 had returned from evacuation. Learning that Alihanov studying cosmic rays on Mount Aragats, Kapitsa invited to conduct the preparatory work for next summer alpine expeditions in his institute on Vorobiev Road. Alihanov accepted this offer.
Back in April Alihanov and his closest associates A. I. Alihan'yan and C. YA. Nikitin began preparations for a new expedition to Aragats, scheduled for 1943. However, until the end of 1944, a group Alikhanova worked at the Institute for the Rights of the guests.
After the expedition of 1943 data processing was carried out with the participation of Academician L. D. Landau, who headed the theoretical division of the Institute for Physical Problems. Well-known theoretical work of Landau on the fluctuations of energy loss was the interpretation of data on the ionization produced by fast charged particles, to monitor participants Aragats expedition.
Cooperation with Landau, which quickly turned into a deep friendship, has further strengthened the desire Alikhanova continue to work at the Institute for Physical Problems. Alikhanova attracted to the idea of the possibility of everyday scientific communication with the Landau and joint work with.
After his return from Armenia group Alikhanova officially passed on the staff of the Institute for Physical Problems. Kapitsa considered very important research conducted by this group in the highland expeditions, giving her lots of attention and otherwise assisting in the. In particular, Kapitsa helped Alikhanov construct a permanent magnet of large magnetic spectrograph and participated in the assembly of this device.
In summer, the year the war ended Alihanov unable to participate in the expedition to Aragats, although personally involved in its preparation at the Institute for Physical Problems. The fact that this summer, when all the Soviet people celebrated the long-awaited victory over fascism, the government significantly expanded the work on the "nuclear issue". Alikhanov was invited to organize a so-called "Laboratory N_3", later renamed the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics.
One of the main objectives Labs N_3 "was the development of reactor-based neutron slowing heavy water. Graphite-moderated reactors were built, the Laboratory N_2 "under the overall guidance and. V. Kurchatov.
Alihanov for nearly 25 years, led them to set up a major research center.
Alihanov organized in Lab N_3 "three broad groups: theoretical, experimental and engineering. He first created in the physical institute an extensive engineering and design group, which has a certain autonomy.
That Alihanov attached great importance to theoretical work in the field of atomic energy, told attraction in "Laboratory N_3" brilliant theoretical physicists. Presiding over this department and academic. YA. Pomeranchuk, many years worked in it Academician L. D. Landau.
Professor P. YA. Nikitin says that the initial plan envisaged the creation of seven Alikhanova Laboratory of Experimental Physics. One of the laboratories was intended to work very Alikhanova. Others managed prominent scientists, whose names are well known in scientific circles of our country and abroad. These were: A. I. Alihan'yan IN. V. Vladimirsky, M. O. Kornfeld, A. I. Leipunskii, IN. V. Migulin, C. YA. Nikitin. One laboratory (A. I. Alikhanyan) was involved in the study of cosmic rays, the other (in. V. Migulina) - construction of the accelerator, the cyclotron. The objectives of all other laboratories - an experimental nuclear reactor physics and the construction of heavy water reactor.
Alihanov was a staunch supporter of the development of reactor moderated by heavy neutron. As a brilliant physicist, he always found the correct physical and engineering solutions to many problems facing the reactor. Creation of the country's first heavy water research reactor is mainly the merit of the Alikhanova, . which in those years devoted himself entirely to this work, . and as many of his staff, . clock dealt with the case, . almost ignoring the rest,
For outstanding achievements in the field of reactor Alikhanov in 1954 was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor and was awarded the State Prize of the first degree.
The first research reactor was built under the guidance Alikhanova in 1949 in record time. This period of time - less than two years - experts believe even the shortest of the present concepts. The first reactor is similar to long before that was built under the leadership of Frederic Joliot-Curie, a French military fort in Chatillon.
On the eve of the launch of the reactor - April 19, 1949 - Alihanov invited to make reactor start-up at night to avoid unnecessary hassles. All physicists, who were to participate in commissioning, as well as technical staff of the reactor were released to go home. Most of them were unaware that night on call in the Institute.
Late at night all the right people were urgently summoned and began to prepare the reactor. At four o'clock in the morning the reactor reached a critical level. Sophisticated facilities will
. Not breaking with reactor, . where he distinguished himself both as an outstanding experimentalist and as a specialist in engineering and physical problems of atomic energy, . Alihanov started to work in the new field of physics - to the problem of obtaining particles of very high-energy accelerators with,
Since 1952, Alihanov with great perseverance, overcoming all obstacles and interference, misunderstanding, different formal and delays t. d. to hack his proposal to build a Soviet high-energy accelerators, working on a "strong focusing". The first accelerator energy of 7 GeV was built in 1961 under the leadership of a. I. Alikhanova and C. S. Vladimir.
Around the same time began the construction of a giant accelerator, now for many years familiar to physicists around the world. This Serpukhov proton accelerator energy 70 GeV. At the time of launch in October 1967 he was the largest in the world. Grand Serpukhov proton accelerator was the apotheosis of work Alikhanova to create a remarkable modern physics experiment in the field of high energy particles.
Alihanov all the years has been very busy working. Physics and the Institute had been his life work - the most interesting and exciting ways. But during the rest of his energy and liveliness of character is not in the least. Fun, vitality and hospitality of the owner made a cottage near Zvenigorod Alikhanov favorite meeting place for friends at home. In traditional barbecues going on Sundays Landau, Artsimovich, came Tamm, P. L. Kapitsa, Kurchatov.
Alikhanova bound friendship with many foreign physicists. Arriving in Moscow, they were happy to have been to his house and in the country, combining the scientific discussions with recreation and participation in the merry ritual of cooking kebabs. Abram attitude to this procedure with mock seriousness, as to a certain experiment. However, the result of this experiment was always known: kebabs to obtain excellent.
I must say that the traditional notion of an outstanding scholar as a man, confined to their narrow professional interests, in general, rarely correspond to reality, totally inappropriate Alikhanov.
All who knew Abram Isaakovich speak of him as a cheerful, cheerful, lovers of jokes, a traveler, a passionate admirer of History and Archeology. He told me that once the dream of his was the story he wanted to become an archaeologist, a scholar of antiquities.
Subtle understanding of art was inherent Abram with youth. Even while working at Aragats he met and became friends for life with the great Armenian painter Martirosov Saryan. When we go to Armenia, Alikhanov met with many representatives of Armenian intellectuals, in particular, was well acquainted with the eminent poet Avetik Isaakyanom.
In 1964, Abraham Alikhanov, this amazingly energetic, cheerful person, a lover of sports, was suddenly struck terrible disease. Few recovered from the blow, Alikhanov continued to work. He did not want to surrender, but it took several years - and the blow was repeated. After recovery Alikhanov already had to learn to write with his left hand - right did not work.
The third blow was critical - December 8, 1970 at the age of 66 years, Abram died.