Matvey Petrovich Bronstein( Physicist-theorist)
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Biography Matvey Petrovich Bronstein
Matvey Petrovich Bronstein was born in 1906.
His boyhood had the difficult years of civil war, the school he went to the principal and his teachers were books. I read a lot, learned a lot - has become an extremely educated man. He is fluent in three languages, on several read. The first scientific work Matvey Petrovich made in 18 years, even before entering the University of Leningrad.
After graduating from the University approved its status as a theoretical physicist. His most famous work was to assess the area, which will affect the quantum effects in gravitation.
The first work Bronstein associated with the theory of gravitation, the general theory of relativity, were devoted to cosmology and astrophysics.
In 1931 the journal "Advances of Physical Sciences, was published extensive (60 pages) of his review of" Current status of relativistic cosmology ". It described the apparatus of the general theory of relativity and consider cosmological models based on the general theory of relativity, de Sitter model, the model of Friedman and Lemaitre.
The following articles on cosmology, he makes the fundamental doubts about the possibility of constructing a cosmological theory based only existing physical theories, as they are symmetrical for both directions of time. In this regard, Bronstein has devoted considerable attention to the question of the applicability limits of physical theories. Most of one of the works in this series of partition "Attitudes of physical theories to each other and to the cosmological theory".
So he put a description of the universe as a result of completion of existing theories, and not as a unique physical object
. In addition to the Russian translation of Einstein's book "Fundamentals of the Theory of Relativity" (1935) he wrote, . that the general theory otnositetelnosti in its present form - only a sketch of the future theory, . building a true theory of gravity should be associated with an even more profound transformation of physical concepts,
. This comment has been under the soil - concepts of Riemannian geometry is not sufficient to describe quantum effects.
In 1936, the article goes Bronstein, devoted to quantum gravity. Taking the general nonlinear equation of Einstein's theory of gravitation, Bronstein constructed a suitable Hamiltonian and ordered the commutation relations in accordance with the general scheme of quantization of fields Heisenberg and Pauli in 1929. Then he tries to trace how the relations obtained are reflected in other fields, and receives the maximum possible density limit of the test body. His conclusion: to eliminate logical inconsistencies should be eliminated from the Riemann space, replacing the usual presentation of space-time by other, possibly lacking clarity, the concepts.
His work in 1937 about the possibility of spontaneous splitting of a photon, another article "On the magnetic neutron scattering" was written at the request and. V. Kurchatov.
In addition to scientific publications, available only to physicists, specialists, Matvey Petrovich Bronstein left us a remarkable book, written for curious readers. It was interesting not only for himself to learn how nature works, but also to share their knowledge with other. He gladly engaged in teaching and popularization of science. First popular articles he wrote while still a student. With Samuil Marshak and Lydia Chukovskaya theoretical physicist and has mastered the profession of children's writer.
In Leningrad Detizdate Books were published by Matvey Petrovich Bronstein's "Atoms and electrons", "Solar Matter" - about how and where (on the Sun!) Was discovered helium, "Rays X" - on the remarkable discovery by Roentgen. As previous, . article "Inventors of wireless telegraphy" - that, . as the study of undistinguished spark led to the invention of radio, . was published in the journal "Fire", . but a book could not go - in the spring of all circulation (tens of thousands of copies) was destroyed,
. The authorities did not like the refusal of Matvey Petrovich edit the story, pointing to the priority of Popova (although the invention of Marconi, and he came simultaneously and independently), but the author refused to do.
In the 80's - 90-ies of these books have not lost their relevance and were reprinted in "Biblitechke QUANT".
Unfortunately, he lived Matvey Petrovich long - just over thirty years. Like many other people (often the most visible and remarkable), he was a victim of Stalinist repression - was arrested and died in 1938 - was shot in the neck in the basement of the prison in Leningrad.