Mikhailov Alexander( Soviet astronomer organizer, surveyor, geophysicist)
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Biography Mikhailov Alexander
Alexander Mikhailov was born in the city of Tambov Morshansk April 26, 1888 (New Style).
Father Alexander Alexandrovich, Alexander P. Mikhailov, was a merchant, a hereditary honorary citizen. Mother of Alexander Alexandrovich, Tatiana, died when his son was eight years old.
Mikhailov was in a real school (with an additional seventh grade, which opened access to a university engineering profile) Alexander Mikhailov graduated in 1906.
As for entering centuries university required knowledge in Latin, Mikhailov devoted to this language for a year.
In 1907, Alexander entered the natural branch of Moscow State University.
In 1908 Mihailov was in the Moscow Society of Lovers of astronomy.
First Mikhailov fascinated with chemistry, then went back to astronomy (which was interested in childhood), including those under the influence of lectures in. K. Tseraskogo on general astronomy.
In 1911, Alexander graduated from the Physics and Mathematics University with a degree of astronomy and geodesy (with a gold medal). After that Mikhailov was left at the university to prepare for a professorship.
Mikhailov began to be published, he wrote the book "On the appearance of Halley's Comet, which was published by the Moscow circle of amateur astronomy (Moscow, 1910). In this book Mikhailov gave instruction on observation of Halley's comet, whose appearance was expected in 1910. Aleksandr calculated ephemeris for 11 months, led the chart the visibility of a comet and its distance from Earth and the Sun on the observation period, a map of the visible path of the sky
, . No.,
Also in 1911 Alexander first visited in St. Petersburg, Pulkovo Observatory, as a trainee.
Practice at Pulkovo was led by such scholars as A. A. Belopol'skii, C. K. Kostinskij EF. F. Renz, P. I. Yashnov.
In 1912, Mikhailov spent several weeks in Germany, where he got acquainted with the experience to. Schwarzschild by definition, the radial-velocity stars objective prism.
After passing the Master's examination and reading trial lecture in April 1914 Alexander Mikhailov was confirmed as a privat-docent of Moscow State University.
Mikhailov, special courses: the theory of eclipses and the individual sections of stellar astronomy. Later, the scientist began to read and other course (Higher Geodesy, the theory of map projections, the theory of figures of the Earth).
At the same time, Alexander Mikhailov has continued to publish works on the solar eclipse prediction of occultation of stars by the Moon, refining the coordinates of the Moon from the observation of occultation of stars and solar eclipses.
Mikhailov also participated in the mapping of the sky, issued by the Moscow Society amateur astronomy in the form of two atlases: "Star Atlas, 4 maps (in 1913) and" Atlas of the Northern sky, 15 cards (in 1915).
In 1916-1917, respectively, at the invitation of Professor P. K. Sternberg, Mikhailov participated in field work to determine the force of gravity in the vicinity of Moscow gravity anomaly (Pavlovsky Posad, Podolsk, and other items).
Studies of gravitational anomalies were continued in 1920.
In 1921, Alexander was involved in the measurements of gravity on the Kola Peninsula and in the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (from 1921 to 1926).
In 1918, Mikhailov was awarded the title of professor
. Being a professor at MSU, . Alexander since 1919, also became a professor at the Moscow Institute of boundary (Moscow Institute of Engineers of Geodesy, . Surveying and Mapping - MIIGAiK), . where he conducted a course of theoretical astronomy and gravity,
In 1920, Mikhailov was brought to lectures in the Communist University I. M. Sverdlov, in which he was a professor and headed the Department mirovedeniya until 1932.
In 1922, Mikhailov was married to Olga Molchanova, in 1923 they had a son George.
When in 1923 in Moscow, was established by the National Institute for Astrophysical his head in. G. Fesenkov and Mikhailov became the head of the department of astrometric.
Mikhailov participated in the observation of total solar eclipse of 29 June 1927 in Moscow a group of scientists went to godrod Malmberget (Sweden). With the designed by himself coronagraph Alexander Mikhailov decided two things: optical (photographing the solar corona in integrated light for its isophotes) and astrometric (coordinates refinement of the Moon by photographing the partial phases of the eclipse),
. Construction of original instruments, he studied and subsequently.
In 1931, the National Institute for Astrophysical Observatory near Moscow, with a Kuchin and astrofix Institute at Moscow State University were merged into a unified State Astronomical Institute of P. K. Sternberg (SAI). Joint Institute Alexander Mikhailov was the head of the Division of gravimetry.
In 1932 was founded the All-Union astrofix Society (wagons). At the I Congress in 1934, Mikhailov was elected chairman (president) Vago. This post he retained until 1960.
In 1932, Mikhailov implemented translated from Italian monographs P. Pizzetti "Mechanical basis of figures of the planets", published GTTI in 1933. In the same year published "The course of the theory of gravity and shape of the Earth".
In 1935, Mikhailov was awarded the degree of Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences without defending a thesis.
In 1943, Alexander Mikhailov, was elected a corresponding member of Academy of Sciences of the USSR
. During the expedition to the area of Blagoveshchensk in the Amur Mikhailov set the task of observing the effect of Einstein photographing star fields during the total phase and re-photograph the same region of sky in six months at night
. This task was formerly British American astronomer (1919 and 1922, respectively).
Mikhailov has made improvements in observational techniques (use of a telescope constructed with a doublet). True, the pictures for scale failed, and the result is not precisely the previous.
By improving the technique, Alexander Mikhailov, Einstein tried to observe the effect of a few more times: September 21, 1941 near Alma-Ata, July 9, 1945 in Rybinsk, 20 May 1947 in Brazil, 30 June 1954 in Pyatigorsk. Three times were bad weather conditions in 1941 proved to be defective clockwork. Subsequently, the effect of Einstein was established by radio astronomy.
During the war Mikhailov continued to work at MSU and MIIGAiK.
In 1946, after his wife's death, Alexander married a second time on Zdenka Ivanovna Kadla.
In 1947, Mikhailov became director of the Main Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo.
In 1959, Mikhailov was awarded the honorary title of Honored Scientist of RSFSR
In 1978 Alexander was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor
. Alexander Mikhailov was an honorary doctor of the University of Copenhagen, . foreign member of the Royal Astronomical Society (UK), . corresponding member of the Paris (International) Bureau des Longitudes, . member of the Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina in Halle (GDR),
. Mikhailov Komandorsky was a knight of the Order of Merit of the Polish People's Republic of.
Mikhailov was awarded many prizes: four Orders of Lenin, Order of the October Revolution.
September 29, 1983 Alexander Mikhailov died.
Name Mikhailova immortalized in the name of the asteroid N1910.