Osamu Tezuka( 'God of Manga', one of the key figures in the history of Japanese culture of XX century)
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Biography Osamu Tezuka
Tezuka Osamu (3.11.1926, Osaka - 9.02.1989) - "God of manga", one of the key figures in the history of Japanese culture of XX century, the founder of aesthetics and technology of modern manga and anime.
Real name Tezuka read, just like his nickname, but spelled one character. To create an alias Tezuka added to his character name "Mushi" - "insect". This happened in 1937, when the boy was carried away entomology and found in the encyclopedia, the word "osamusi (" beetle "), which literally translates as" the most important insect, large bug ". The love of entomology, biology and nature Tezuka kept for life.
Tezuka's childhood passed in the town of Takarazuka (province of Hyogo). His family belonged to the Japanese intellectuals, and the boy early became acquainted with the best achievements of not only Japan but also world culture. In addition to the European, an important role in its formation has played Russia's culture - classical music, painting of the Silver Age, Dostoevsky.
In addition, Tezuka's father, a doctor by profession, was an ardent fan of cinema and even had a home cinema projector - a rarity in Japan. Tezuka's mother, in turn, was a fan of Takarazuka Theater - a unique theatrical troupe, established in the early XX century, and combines the aesthetics of traditional Japanese theater with enchanting and scale Broadway shows. Uniqueness Takarazuka theater was the fact that all the roles it fulfilled young women.
The boy had inherited from his parents, both their hobby, adding to them entomology and a passion for drawing. Seeing in 1945, full-length animated film directed by Ezo Mitsui Momotarе- - divine sailor "[Momotarou: Umi no Shinpei], Tezuka set about trying to become an animator. In fact, this thought came to him before, and the young man was an ardent admirer Disney and Max Fleischer. However, in the war-torn country to create the animation was quite difficult, and impractical
. Instead of an expensive Tokyo manga, published in the war years in color and on good paper, comes the so-called "krasnooblozhechnaya, Osaka manga, published in black and white, in large quantities and on newsprint and sold literally for peanuts
. Fees manga have also been small, but the publishers gave them unprecedented creative freedom.
In 1946, Tezuka debuted as a mangaka, began to publish in the newspaper "Mainichi" chetyrehrisunochnuyu manga "The Diary of Ma babes" [Ma-chan no Nikki] - a fairly traditional for his time.
But a year later, in 1947, Tezuka released manga, suddenly made him famous in Osaka - "New Treasure Island" [Shin Takarajima]. The plot of this manga invented Sakai Sitima, . but fame is not subject, . and graphical techniques and methods: Tezuka began to actively use the cinematic camera angles in the manga, . closeups, . "stretching" of one scene for a few pictures, . sound effects, and underline the phases of motion,
. For more than 200 pages of book publishing manga to tell a single story, filled with exciting adventures. Total has sold about 400 thousand copies of it - an unprecedented circulation for the devastated country, which not everyone could find the money even for a cup of rice.
During these years, Tezuka studied medicine at the Faculty of the University of Osaka. Creative and financial success did not prevent him, in the end, finish university and get a degree of doctor, as urged by his parents. True, this happened only in 1958.
After the Tezuka became famous, he was offered a job Tokyo's largest children's magazines. He accepted all these proposals. The magazine "Manga Shounen" he began to publish manga "Jungle Emperor" [Jungle Taitei] (1950-1954), . in the magazine "Shounen" - manga "Ambassador Atom" [Atom Taishi], . soon renamed "Mighty Atom" [Tetsuwan Atom] (1952-1958), . in the journal "Shoujo Club" - the first in the history of Japan Shе-jo manga "Knight with a ribbon" [Ribbon no Kishi] (1953-1956, . 1958, . 1963-1966) and the first manga with luminous eyes ",
Meanwhile, Tezuka in 1952, he moved to Tokyo. Tokivaso dilapidated apartment house in which he lived, became a Mecca for young manga, who came there to learn from the young master. In Tokivaso lived together with Tezuka such future luminaries as Isinomori Setar, Motoo Abika, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Akatsuka Fujio, Jiro Tsunoda, Hideki Mizuno and many. In addition, in the 1970 student Tezuka was Terasava Buiti. The amount of young authors, which influenced his work, just nischislimo. Thus, their inspiration directly called Tezuka Hagio Moto, Ito Simpey, Ivaaki Hitoshi, Tomoko Taniguchi, Masako Watanabe, and many
. In the late 1950's Studio "Toei Douga" decided to create full-length animated film "Journey to the West" [Saiyuki] (1960) explanation of Tezuka manga "The Adventures of Goku" [Gokuu no Daibouken] (1952-1959), . which, . in turn, . was based on the classical Chinese novel by Wu Cheng'en,
. The director of this film was Yabusita hills near Taizo, and he drew the draft Tezuka and Isinomori.
Acquaintance with the world of animation, as he had long dreamed of, Tezuka was disappointed that the anime does not use in Japan the same popularity as the American animated series. Especially "failures" was rapidly developing TV market, which American animation is fully captured. Gained popularity serials studio "Hanna-Barbera".
In order to fundamentally change the situation, Tezuka in 1961, created the animation studio "Mushi Productions". The following year he "for warm-produced experimental feature film" The history of one of the street "[Aru Machikadou no Monogatari] (1962), . a new, . 1963, . Japan met with the first cult anime TV series "Mighty Atom" [Tetsuwan Atomu] (1963-1966),
. Series produced in black and white.
The tremendous success of the "Mighty Atom" has created a real boom in TV animation, which relied on the already accumulated manga material. Long serial comics ideally portrayed in a long TV series.
In 1964, Tezuka created the first ever anime feature film - the continuation of TV series: "Mighty Atom - the space hero" [Tetsuwan Atom Uchuu no Yuusha].
In 1965, the "Mushi Productions" began producing its first color TV series "Jungle Emperor" [Jungle Taitei] (1965-1966), directed by Rintaro.
As Tokivaso in the world of manga, studio "Mushi Productions" has become a launching pad for a number of significant animators. Among them were Rintaro, Dedzaki Osamu, Sugii Gisaburo, Yoshiaki Kawajiri, Masami Hata, Akio Suginami, Nunokava Yuji and many others.
In 1966, there is a new feature-length experimental film Tezuka "Pictures at an Exhibition" [Tenrankai no E] - pictures of various human types, set to music by Mussorgsky.
In the second half of 1960 ekraniziruetsya large part written by the time serials Tezuka. However, the commercial value of the further creative masters of animation experiments is low. Thus, the TV series "Vampire" [Vampire] (1968-1969, manga - 1966-1967, 1968-1969), created in the technique of combining actors with animated characters, they failed miserably. In addition, "Disney" style of Tezuka that time did not fit for a horror movie
. After this failure Tezuka produced two feature films: "Tales of 1001 Nights" [Senya Ichiya Monogatari] (1969), explanations of Arab erotic tales, and "Cleopatra" [Cleopatra] (1971) - a daring erotic parody of the historical films of Roman life with a lot of intentional incongruities and anachronisms,
. These works Tezuka founded the tradition of "anime for adults".
However, in 1970, Tezuka departs from the leadership "Mushi Productions", and two years later the company go bankrupt and goes into other hands. Students Tezuka went to various studios and companies, the largest group of them set up a studio "Madhouse".
1970's for Tezuka - the time to return to the manga (which he, in fact, anywhere and did not leave). He himself always called manga "wife", and anime - "mistress". Unable to escape even from a child's love, in 1975 he founded the studio "Tezuka Productions".
For some time, "Tezuka Productions" where he publishes the manga and the release of TV serials. However, over time there has been bias to a non-profit interest Tezuka animation. Latest commercial project studio became a feature film "The Firebird 2772: Kosmozona love" [Hi no Tori 2772: Ai no Cosmo Zone] (1980) directed by Sugiyama Taki. For this movie, Tezuka wrote the script - the completion of his life, manga, "The Firebird" [Hi no Tori] (1967-1971, 1976-1981).
For this great film was followed by non-profit "trifles" jumps "[Jumping] (1984) and" Old film "[Onboro Film] (1985), received top prizes at prestigious international animation festivals in Zagreb and Hiroshima, respectively,. Similar honors won and the last, unfinished work of Tezuka anime, Legend of the forest "[Mori no Densetsu] (1987), set to music by Tchaikovsky.
In 1989, Tezuka died of stomach cancer. Although outside of Japan, his death was barely noticed, in the country itself, it became a national tragedy. Many did not believe and did not want to believe that Tezuka, until the end remained a fantastically energetic and industrious, many years, died from a terrible disease. In 1994, the Takarazuka opened a museum dedicated to him, and the company "Tezuka Productions" prepared to publish his complete works, and still earns a good idea on the legacy of the master. In 1997 stamps were issued on Tezuka.
During his life Tezuka created about 500 works of manga, the total length of 150 thousand pages. Here are the most significant of them (not counting the already mentioned above): "Metropolis" [Metropolis] (1948-1951), . "Crime and punishment - a comic" [Eigoban Tsumi to Batsu] (1953), . "Shinsengumi" [Shinsengumi] (1963), . "Big X" [Big X] (1963-1966), . "Great Trinity" [W3] (1965-1966), . "Ambassador Magma" [Magma Taishi] (1965-1967), . "Dororo" [Dororo] (1967-1968), . "Marine newts" [Umi no Triton] (1969-1971), . "Secret Melmo" [Fushigi na Melmo] (1970-1972), . Maria - doll Yakkepati "[Yakkepachi no Maria] (1970), . "Es Mikroid" [Microid S] (1973), . "Black Jack" [Black Jack] (1973-1983), . "Buddha" [Buddha] (1974-1984), . "This is Trehglazy!" [Mittsume ga Tooru] (1974-1978), . "Unicom" [Unico] (1976-1979), . Gas MW "[MW] (1978), . "Tell Adolf" [Adolf ni Tsugu] (1983-1985), . Trees in the sun "[Hidamari no Ki] (1983-1987), . "Neo-Faust" [Neo Faust] (1987), . "Ludwig B." [Ludwig B.] (1987), . "Gringo" [Gringo] (1987-1989),
In memory of those who knew him closely, Tezuka remained a great creator and humanist, but not without some "children's" weaknesses. Thus, Tezuka life with kindness envied his followers, and often lamented that he could not occupy the first line of manga hitparada for all ages. And starting balding, he was wearing a beret, which became his trademark. Only very close people are awarded the honor to behold his bald.
Tezuka was the first modern manga began to earn big money for their work. But he was never a slave to money and constantly put them in their new, often experimental projects, many of whom have financially insolvent.
Great manga, Tezuka was and remains the greatest master of Japanese comics. But his greatest contribution to the Japanese and world culture is not within his works, and that his work and his assistance inspired many followers who went beyond his. Tezuka works were remarkable, but it always seemed that they could do better, that "the issue is not closed, it can develop further. Being a pioneer and a genius, Tezuka did not manga despot and was always open to new ideas. And his experience in the field of organization create anime still serve the industry - like many of his invented stories.