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Umberto Eco

( Italian writer, semiotics, cultural studies, essayist)

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Biography Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco (Umberto Eco)

Born on 5 January 1932. in Alessandria (Piedmont), a small town east of Turin and to the south of Milan.
Fulfilling the desires of a father who wanted his son to become a lawyer, Eco goes to the University of Turin, where he attended a course on law, but soon left this area of science and beginning to study medieval philosophy.

1954 - graduated from University as a dissertation work by submitting an essay devoted to religious thinker and philosopher Thomas Aquinas. Went to work for RAI (Italian television), where is the editor of a culture, is published in periodicals.

1956 - published the first book Eco 'Problems of esthetics in SW. Thomas' (Il problema estetico in San Tommaso). Subsequently, it will be refined and republished under the title 'Problems of aesthetics of Thomas Aquinas' (1970).

1959 - Eco began to cooperate with the magazine 'Il Verri', speaking with a monthly column. In the same year published a second book Eco, . Nominated by the author of the most eminent scholars of the Middle Ages' Aesthetics of the Middle Ages' (Sviluppo dell'estetica medievale); after the revision and refinement, it is republished under the title "Art and beauty in medieval aesthetics' (Arte e bellezza nell'estetica medievale, . 1987),
.

After reading the book of French semiotics R. Barth (1915-1980) 'Mythology' (Mythologies. 1957), Eko discovers that his presentation of the content is very similar to bartovskoy and therefore changes the manner. Now he performs with a kind of parody, ironically, having conceived the same ideas that are seriously considered in the magazine

. 1962 - publication of the book 'Opera aperta', . which, . reflecting on the general problems of culture, . particularly, . of visual communications, . Why as a test material are attracted television reports, . Eco opposed to the postulates of classical structuralism,
. The main idea of the book boils down to that 'a work of art - is a fundamentally ambiguous message, the plurality signified that coexist in the same meaning'. The concept of 'open work' (which gave the name of the English language edition and included in scientific use) implies the existence of a wide field for interpretation, whereas 'private work' - one single interpretation of.

In the same year, Eco marries a German woman Renate Ramge, then worked as an art consultant. They are born two children - a son and daughter.

1963 - comes a collection of articles published in 'Il Verri', 'Diario minimo', entitled, respectively, heading, which was conducted by Eco. After nearly three decades, published a collection of 'second Diario minimo' (1992).

. 1961-1964 - Eco lectured on aesthetics at the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy at the University of Turin and the architectural department of the Politecnico of Milan

. 1964 - Work 'frightened and cohesive' (Apocalittici e integrati) which deals with the theory of mass communication.

. 1965 - 'The Poetics of James Joyce' (Le poetiche di Joyce)
.

1966 - Eco co-authored with E. Carmi wrote 2 books for children - 'The bomb and the general' (La bomba e il generale) and 'Three cosmonauts' (I tre cosmonauti). Plot latter figure: the representatives of such diverse countries as the United States, Russia and China, can only survive by helping each other

. 1966-1969 - is a professor of visual communications architecture faculty, University of Florence.

. 1968 - The struggle against the desire to build a category structure in the rank osnovopolagayusche, . as well as against the absolute text in literary analysis permeated the book 'no structure' (La struttura assente) - expanded and revised version designed to benefit students 'Notes on the semiology of visual communications' (Appunti per una semiologia delle comunicazioni visive, . 1967), . written in that period, . when Eco teaches at the Architectural Faculty of the University of Florence,
. In addition, the book 'Defining Art' (La definizione dell'arte).

. 1969 - as a visiting professor taught courses at New York University.

. 1969-1971 - is a professor of semiotics architectural faculty of Milan's Polytechnic Institute.

. 1971 - published work 'sign' (Il segno)
. Eco founded the magazine 'Versus', devoted to the semiotics



. 1972-1979 - Eco - Secretary General of the International Association of semiotic studies.

. 1973 - study 'domestic routine' (Il costume di casa), devoted to the problems of cultural history and 'Beat Liebansky' (Beato di LiцLbana).

. 1974 - Eco is the organizer of the First International Congress on semiotics, held in Milan.

. 1975 - Eco appointed head of the Department of Semiotics University of Bologna
. As Visiting Professor Lectured at the University of San Diego. Exit 'Treatise on general semiotics' (Trattato di semiotica generale).

1976 - as a visiting professor taught courses at New York University. Exit 'theory of semiotics' (A Theory of Semiotics) and 'Superman in mass literature' (Il superuomo di massa).

. 1976-1977, 1980-1983 - a director of the Institute of Communication Sciences and the spectacle of the Bologna University.

. 1977 - as a visiting professor gives courses of lectures at Yale University
. It turns out 'on the periphery of the empire' (Dalla periferia all'impero) and manual 'How is writing his thesis' (Come si fa una tesi di laurea).

1978 - as a visiting professor gives courses of lectures at Columbia University.

1979 - 'Lector in fibula' (1979), the work which put forward the notion of 'model reader'.

1979-1983 - Eco - Vice President, International Association of Semiotic Studies.

1980 - as a visiting professor gives courses of lectures at Yale University.

In the same year he published his first novel Eco 'Name of the Rose' (Il nome della rosa), which immediately falls into the bestseller lists. In recognition of the author, he initially wanted to write a detective story of modern life, but then decided that he, as a medievalist, will be much more interesting to build a detective story on the background of medieval decor. The novel is set in a Benedictine monastery of the XIV century., . where there is a series of mysterious murders, . that, . believed, . are the diabolical machinations of some key characters of the novel - Library, . manuscript, . Labyrinth - refer to the works of Argentine writer JL Borges, . whose shape is not only one of the central to the literature of XX century., . but also especially revered Eco,
. The novel is saturated with a variety of information on medieval culture, theology, etc.. The book was translated into many foreign languages, won literary awards such as the Italian Strega Prize (1981) and the French Medicis Prize (1982). Screen adaptation of the novel 'Name of the Rose' (1986), carried out by French filmmaker Jean-Jacques Annaud (p. 1943), . won a Cesar nomination for 'Best Foreign Film' (1987), . aided some, . that the role of William Baskervilskogo played the famous actor Sean Connor, . a shooting took place in the monastery at Eberbach Frankfurt, . where fully preserved the atmosphere of the Middle Ages,
. Later Eco published his book 'Notes on the fields "Name of roses"' (Postille al nome della rosa, 1983), a kind of intelligent commentary on the novel.

1981 - as a visiting professor gives courses of lectures at Yale University.

1983-1988 - a director of the Institute of Communication Sciences University of Bologna.

1984 - as a visiting professor gives courses of lectures at Columbia University. Work outs 'Semiotics and the philosophy of language' (Semiotica e filosofia del linguaggio).

1985 - Work 'the mirror' (Sugli specchi e altri saggi).

1986-2002 - director of the doctoral degree programs in semiotics of the University of Bologna.

1988 - comes the second novel Eco "Foucault's Pendulum '(Il pendolo di Foucault), despite all the outward differences - the action takes place in the XX century. besides historical narratives are a lot of lyrical digressions in the recent past, in particular, during the Second World War - a concept 'double' novel 'Name of the Rose

. 1989-1995 - Member of the Executive Scientific Committee of the University of San Marino.

. 1989 - President of the International Center for Semiotic and Cognitive Studies, Director of the Department of semiotic and cognitive research


. 1990 - Work 'The limits of interpretation' (I limiti dell'interpretazione), where an attempt, based on the works of logic and philosopher Karl Popper (1902-1994), to give the distinction of true and false reading of the text.

. 1991 - go 'Stelle e stellette' and 'Vocali'.

. 1992 - Work 'Interpretation and giperinterpretatsiya' (Interpretation and overinterpretation).

. 1992-1993 - Eco - Professor College de France, Paris.

. 1993 - Work 'Finding the perfect language in European culture' (La ricerca della lingua perfetta nella cultura europea), considering the existence of such a language that reflects the essence of phenomena.

. 1992-1993 - read cycle Norton lectures at Harvard University, the text of which was later published in a collection entitled 'Six walks in the forests of the literature' (Sei passeggiate nei boschi narrative, 1994).

. 1994 - a collection of selected essays 'Deferred Apocalypse' (Apocalypse Postponed)
. The novel 'The Island on the eve of' (L'isola del giorno prima), which as well as historical novels, saturated references and hidden quotations. Eco presents it as a Baroque work. Nevertheless, this is another game started novelist. The reader is invited to pure post-modern novel, but post-modernism in the interpretation of Eco - a spiritual state, not the phenomenon that refines a given chronological outline.


. 1997 - Collection 'Five essays on the topic of ethics' (Cinque scritti morali) and Work 'Kant and the platypus' (Kant e L'ornitorinco), a study on epistemology (a philosophical term used to refer to the theory of knowledge).

. 1998 - Work 'Between the lies and irony' (Tra menzogna e ironia), where the author analyzes the phenomenon lies in the various practices, such as speech and behavior.

. 1999 - since then Eco is the president of the Higher School of Humanities Research University of Bologna
.

2000 - published novel 'Baudolino' (Baudolino). He re-written in the historical material in the center of it - the adopted son of Frederick Barbarossa, the man, who initiated the Crusades and the inspiration of the Grail quest

. 2002 - published a collection of 'On Literature' (Sulla letteratura), which included public speaking Eco and his magazine articles.

. With this year's Eco is the president of the Italian Institute for the Humanities.

. 2003 - Book 'to speak almost the same thing' (Dire quasi la stessa cosa), based on workshop materials, which lead scientist at various universities, and works on issues related to the transfer
. In addition to seminars and lectures, delivered in Italian universities and various institutions, lectures and seminars at universities and cultural centers in many countries: from Australia to Japan.

. ECO member of various academies, . including the Bologna Academy of Sciences (1994) and the American Academy of Literature and Art (1998) and an honorary doctor of many foreign universities, . winner of many literary awards, . award winning various countries, . particularly, . he Commander of the French Legion of Honor,
. (1993). On it was written nearly six dozen books and a huge number of articles and dissertations, his work devoted to scientific conferences.

Eco is not alien to politics. Thus, in the late 1990's he was actively involved in the election campaign, is the initiator of ideological congresses and conferences, one of which was held in the castle in 1997 Gargontsa. Conducts public debate.

Much effort given to the development of new forms of communication, controls the development of scientific software for 'Olivetti', from the encyclopedic departments periods of human development implemented 'Seventeenth Century' (1995) and 'Eighteenth Century' (1997). Another project - the creation of 'Multimedia Arcade'. Multimedia library, computer training center, Internet access are set for 50 terminals, unified network, which serves the special staff (teachers, technicians, librarians). The basic idea - to give an opportunity to use the latest technologies for a nominal fee. In the first phase project is designed for residents of Bologna, but the experience can be distributed within the country and even globally.

Availability of knowledge - the most important, according to Eco, the conquest of civilization. One of his first attempts to create an accessible teaching materials, and accessible in every sense, was the publication 'Notes on the semiology of visual communications'. Considering, . the manuscript, . Reproduction in mimeographed, . be costly, . and therefore not provide the student with too much to buy it will not, . he negotiated with the publishers 'Bompyani', . and the manual was produced for the lowest possible price (subject to, . that the books will not appear in a broad sell, . and will be distributed only among the students),
.

Eco has a weekly column 'boxes of paper matches Minerva' in magazine 'Espresso'. It is believed that the notes for this column he makes it in such a matchbox. So have not been completed and published in the periodical 'Kakopediya' (Encyclopedia upside down) and humorous history of philosophy in poetry and cartoons 'philosophers of freedom'. However, perhaps this is another hoax and the author never intended to finish these works.


Literary works

Name of the Rose. 1980


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