Laue, Max Theodor Felix( The famous physicist, Nobel Prize winner for 1914. Discovered by the method of X-ray analysis.)
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Biography Laue, Max Theodor Felix
Max Theodor Felix von Laue [Max von Laue] (9.09.1879-24.04.1960). Born in Germany September 9, 1879.
Father Max Laue was an official agency of the military courts and it is often transferred from place to place. Therefore, Max Theodor Felix von Laue was replaced several schools. He graduated from a Protestant school in Strasbourg.
From the age of twelve Max Laue began to attend the Berlin company "Urania" involved in promoting the newest achievements of science. At meetings of this society were well-known scientists, demonstrated working models of scientific instruments and the latest inventions and reveals the secrets of chemical reactions.
In 1898, Max von Laue graduated from high school and enrolled in the University of Strasbourg. He also listened to lectures in Berlin, GцTttingen and Munich University. Under the leadership of the Max Planck Laue defended his doctoral thesis on the interference of light on the plane-parallel plates.
In 1909, Max Theodor Felix von Laue moved to Munich, where he started work at a theoretical physicist Arnold Sommerfeld.
In 1911 was published on the theoretical work of Laue, devoted to the theory of relativity, Albert Einstein.
From Munich Laue moved to Zurich, where he headed the Department of Theoretical Physics, University of. Then he moved to Frankfurt and Wuerzburg.
In 1917 Max von Laue won the responsible post of Deputy Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute in Berlin, he also lectured at the University of Berlin.
Sommerfeld asked Max Laue write for Physical multivolume encyclopedia article on the wave optics. Laue decided for a more detailed acquaintance with the diffraction of light waves, only to describe this phenomenon in the encyclopedia.
By the time a young researcher Paul Ewald, who oversaw the work of Max Laue, began to study the optical properties of crystals. He turned to Max von Laue, with a request to describe mathematically the behavior of light waves in crystals. It was assumed that the crystal can serve as a three-dimensional diffraction grating with atoms in its nodes, which form a recurrent right picture. Laue unable to devise a formula of light diffraction in the crystal, but he had another idea was born.
While Laue wondered whether open Roentgen rays a form of electromagnetic radiation with very short wavelengths. Max Laue was to observe the behavior of light rays in crystals, and came to the conclusion that the wavelength of X-rays may be of the same order as the distance between the atoms of the crystal lattice. That is, if X-ray radiation is a form of electromagnetic, the crystal must act on it as a three-dimensional diffraction grating. In various areas of the crystal must be based on different atoms scattered diffraction radiation, generating a diffraction pattern consisting of dark and light points.
To test this hypothesis, Max Theodor Felix von Laue an experiment, which was preceded by a theoretical justification.
In April 1912, on a crystal of copper sulfate (blue vitriol) Max Laue sent a narrow beam of X-rays. The scattered radiation is highlighted on the crystal clear diffraction pattern. Having shown a photographic plate, Laue, and helped him Paul Knipping and Walter Friedrich saw a pattern of dark and light points. Such pictures are called lauegramm.
Max Laue made a mathematical description of the experiment. In his equations, he By enabling communication between the observational results obtained on photographic plates, the wavelength of X-rays and arrangement of atoms in crystals.
Albert Einstein described the opening of Max Laue as one of the most beautiful in physics. This work ushered in a new field of physical science - X-ray crystallography. Its methods can be used to study the crystal structures, and to determine the wavelengths of the unknown radiation on crystals with pre-defined structures.
Max von Laue received the Nobel Prize in 1914.
In 1933, accession to power in Germany the Nazis came and deposed by Albert Einstein to the post of Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics. Max Laue opposed this action, but, fortunately, was not removed from office. He continued to engage in research and teaching work.
After the fall of Nazi Germany Max von Laue was arrested and sent to England. He returned to Germany in 1946. He stood at the head of the Max Planck Institute - so was called the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute.
From 1951 until the resignation of Max Theodor Felix von Laue was the Director of the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Fritz Haber in Berlin.
April 24, 1960 Max von Laue died.
With the help of X-ray crystallography, open Max von Laue have. G. Bragg and Y. L. Bragg (father and son), was subsequently studied the structure of many crystals, D. Hodgkin used it to determine the structure of penicillin, and D. Kendrew and M. Perutz made the objects of X-ray analysis of proteins. All of these researchers have been awarded Nobel Prizes.