Henrik Ibsen( Norwegian playwright)
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Biography Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen was born March 20, 1828 in the small town of Skien, on the shore of the Gulf of Christiania (Southern Norway). He comes from an ancient and rich Danish family sudohozyaev who moved to Norway about 1720. Ibsen's father, Knud Ibsen, is an activity in a healthy nature, mother, - a German-born daughter of a wealthy merchant skienskogo - was particularly strict, dry-tempered and extremely devout.
. In 1836 Knud Ibsen went bankrupt, and the lives of wealthy, well-organized family changed dramatically
. Former friends and acquaintances little by little began to distance himself, went gossip, ridicule, all kinds of deprivation. Human cruelty is reflected very heavily on the future playwright. And so has the nature of the unsocial and savage, he now became even more sought solitude in the hardened.
Henrik Ibsen was in elementary school, where striking teachers excellent work. At the 16 th year, he had to go to pharmacy students in a nearby town Grimshtadta, with a population of only 800 residents. He left without any regret Skien and never returned to his hometown, where he was in such an early age had to learn all the value and power of money.
In the pharmacy, where he spent 5 years youth secretly dreamed of further education and doctoral degree. Revolutionary idea in 1848 found it hot adherent. In his first poem, rapturous ode, he sang the Hungarian patriots, martyrs.
Life of Henry in Grimshtadte becomes a more and more unbearable. He initiated a public opinion against the town of his revolutionary theories, free-thinking and sharpness. Finally, Ibsen decided to throw a pharmacy and went to Christiania, where he had to fight the first time the full life of any hardship.
In Christiania Ibsen met and closely associated with Bjornson, who later became his bitter opponent. However, Bjornson, Vigny and Bott-Hansen, Ibsen was founded in 1851, the weekly newspaper "Andhrimner", whose existence would last several months. Here Henry put a few poems and 3-aktnoe satirical drama "Norma".
After the termination of the journal, Ibsen met with the founder of the National Theater in Bergen, Ola-Buhl, who gave him the post of director and director of this theater. In Bergen, Henry spent 5 years and in 1857 he moved to Christiania, also the position of Director of Theater. Here he remained until 1863.
In 1858 Henry Ibsen married and was very happy in their married lives. In 1864, after much trouble, he was a writer retired from the Storting and used it to go south. At first, he settled in Rome, where he lived in solitude, then moved to Trieste, then in Dresden and Munich, where he went to Berlin, and was also present at the opening of the channel Suezskogo. Then he lived in Munich.
Ibsen's first play, more psychological than historical drama "Satilina" refers to 1850. In the same year, Ibsen made sure that was put on stage his tragedy: "Kamphojen". Since then, he began to write piece after piece, the subjects for which he took from the history of the Middle Ages. "Gildet pa Solhoug", marching in Christiania in 1856 - the first of Ibsen's dramas, which had considerable success. Then came "Fru Inger til Osterraat" (1857), "Harmandene paa Helgeland" (1858), "Kongs Emnerne" (1864). All these plays were very successful and had many times to play in Bergen, Christiania, Copenhagen, Stockholm and Germany. But he had written in 1864, the play "En Broder Nod" and especially "Kjoerlighedens Komedie", so antagonized him by his countrymen, that Ibsen was forced to leave Norway in 1864.
Further his drama "Brand" (1866), "Peer Gynt" (1867), "Kejser og Galiltoer" (1871), "De Unges Forbund" (1872), "Samfundets-Stotter" (1874), "Nora" (1880 ), after which he completely fell out with BjцTrnson. Then again Ibsen wrote: "Hedda Gabler", "Rosmersholm" and "The Master Builder". Ibsen's collected poems in the book "Digte ..." (1871)
. The plays of Henrik Ibsen became known in Europe recently, . but the glory of this writer grew with amazing rapidity, . and in recent years, critics, . speaking of the tops of modern literature, . mention of the Norwegian playwright next to the names of Tolstoy and Zola,
. At the same time, however, with fanatical fans, he has an equally zealous opponents, who consider his success painful phenomenon. Slava created him not historical play, written in the Norse sagas (the best of them, "Warriors Heligoland), and comedy and drama of modern life. The decisive moment in the work of Ibsen was in 1865 when he was the first time after leaving Norway, sent there from Italy's dramatic poem, "The Brand".
In the mood and thrust of modern Ibsen were divided into two categories: biased incriminating comedy and psychological drama. In his comedies Ibsen was a fanatical defender of whole, . self-sufficient person and a fierce enemy of those forms of life, . that, . according artists, . depersonalizes, . negate the modern people - families, . based on the romantic lie, . Society, . State, . and, . mainly, . democracy - the tyranny of the majority,
. In general, the plot of all these pieces is the same: some kind of whole person, the hero or heroine, enters into conflict with society because of the ideal of truth. What is distinctive personality and stronger, the fiercer her struggle with the lack of will and moral insignificance of people. In the end, a person is lonely, abandoned, abused, but not defeated.
Priest Brand, the hero of a fantastic dramatic poem in verse, aims to achieve inner perfection of life, full of intellectual freedom. To this end he sacrifices his personal happiness, the only son of his beloved wife. But in the end of his daring and does not know compromises idealism ( "all or nothing") is facing a cowardly hypocrisy of spiritual and secular authorities, abandoned by all, the hero in the minds of my innocence die alone among the eternal ice of the Norwegian mountains.
In an atmosphere more real a similar fate befalls Dr. Stockman (the hero of the comedy "Enemy of the People"). Convinced, . that democracy is his home town, . lip service to principles of freedom and justice, . in fact, subject to small and dishonest motives, . Dr. Stockman collects folk gatherings in announcing, . that made the following discovery: "the most dangerous enemy of truth and freedom, . is woven, . Most free!.,
. Most never right - yes, never! This is - common lie, which should rise up against every available reasonable person. Who is the majority in each country? Enlightened people or fools? Fools are terrible, the vast majority of the entire space of the world. But is it true, . damn, . to manage people educated fools? "Having received from fellow nicknamed" the enemy of the people ", . all abandoned and persecuted, . Stockman said in their homes, . he made another discovery: "Here you see, . that I discovered: the most powerful man in this world that, . who is lonely ",
. To the same conflict comes, and Nora, which is akin to the spirit of Brando and Stockman. - Make sure that the family based on the fact that my husband loves his wife a beautiful doll, and not equal rights, Nora, the play of the same name throws not only her husband but also the favorite of children, dooming himself to solitude. In all these plays Ibsen poses the question: can the life of truth in modern society? - And decides it adversely. To live by the truth, whole person must be outside the family, outside society, outside of class in political parties.
The artist is not confined to such seemingly condemnatory attitude to modernity. Is it possible under modern conditions of life happy, contented feeling cheerful? - This is the second issue raised by Ibsen himself, and which meet his psychological drama, in the artistic standing incomparably higher than comedies. Answer and then turns negative, although the artist's conception of the world in many respects radically changed. Happiness is impossible, because the happiness inseparable from falsehood, and modern man is infected with the microbe of truth, truth-fever than destroying ourselves and our neighbors
. Instead of the proud, . romantic Brand, . preacher of truth is now eccentric, . but the actual images Gregor Werle ( "Wild Duck"), . that his unhappy truth-breaks in front of spectators imperturbable, . although based on lies the happiness of his friend Ialmara,
. Unable to happiness, and therefore, . that no one can be himself, . no one can assert their individuality, . because of us gravitates law of heredity, . and among us stand up as ghosts vices, . and the virtues of our fathers ( "Ghosts"),
. Shackles of debt obligations, bequeathed to us by past centuries, hinder our buoyant, which is looking for a secret exit, it is debauchery. Finally, happiness is impossible because the development of culture, becoming more subtle mental and moral, humanity is losing the desire for life, learned to laugh and cry ( "Rosmersgolm)
. The same cycle of psychological pieces include "Ellida" (or "woman of the sea") - the most poetic of all the works of Ibsen, . if not in theory (namely, in, . that sense of trust, . respect has more power over the heart, . than the despotism of love), . then, . at least, . for execution,
. The climax of Ibsen's works also seem to "Hedda Gabler", the only, perhaps, his live play, without social or moral schemes, in which they operate and live for themselves, and not of serfs to work for the author's ideas. In Hedda Gabler, Ibsen has embodied the great decadence of morals of his age, when the sensibility to the nuances of foreign beauty overshadowed questions of good and evil, a sense of honor is replaced by the fear of scandal, and love - fruitless agonies of jealousy
. Last time Ibsen - "The Master Builder", . nelishennaya autobiographical significance, . draws in the symbolic image of the course of world progress, . which began with the naive faith, . science continues, . and in the future will lead humanity to a new reasonably mystical understanding of life, . a castle in the air, . built on a stone base,
These are the ideas of Ibsen plays, bold, often bold, bordering on the paradoxes, but hurt the most intimate mood of his present. In addition to the ideological content of these pieces are remarkable, as perfect examples of stage equipment. Ibsen returned to modern drama classic form - the unity of time and place, . and as for the unity of action, . it is replaced by his unity plan, . internal branching, the main idea, . on the likeness of the invisible nervous system, . penetrating into every phrase, ,
Strength and integrity of design has few rivals Ibsen. He, moreover, completely eliminated the monologue and spoken language brought to the ideal of simplicity, credibility and diversity. In reading the works of Ibsen impressed than on stage, because the development of the ideas easier to follow reading than listening to. A special reception is his love for the characters. In almost every play, the basic idea, developing in action, embodied in some random way, but this method is not always possible to Ibsen, and sometimes, as in "Brando" and "Master Builder", is making a play for a lack of taste.
The value of Ibsen and the reason for its world-wide fame to be found in modern preached his ideas. Ibsen is the same representative of limitless individualism in literature, as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche - in philosophy, as anarchists - in politics. No one doubts the depth and originality of his ideas, but many feel that they are not warmed by the love of people that is their strength - not from God.
Henrik Ibsen died in Christiania May 23, 1906, after a long severe illness.