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Century Alexander G.

( physicist)

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Biography Century Alexander G.
photo Century Alexander G.
A scientist with an impossible character - the so-called Stoletov his contemporaries ...
Outstanding Russian physicist Alexander G. Stoletov was born in the summer of 1839 in a poor family of merchants. His father - Grigory Mikhailovich - was the owner of a grocery store and a workshop for tanning in the city of Vladimir. His mother - Alexandra - has been formed by that time the woman and she taught her children before they reach the school, Russian language and arithmetic.
For four years, little Sasha learned to read. He was a sickly boy, and reading has become his favorite pastime. Books he took a fairly good home library, which housed many works of Russian poets and prose writers. In the future, his love of reading has become a requirement for independent literary creation. In high school he and his colleagues began publishing a handwritten journal that published his autobiographical novel "My Memoirs".
In family Stoletovs, but Sasha was still five children. After his elder brother Nicholas Alexander learned the French language, and under the influence of her elder sister Varenka I became interested in music.
In 1849, Alexander STOLETOV entered the Vladimir school. He graduated high school in 1856, . received a Certificate of Completion, . in which it was written, . that he "recognized as graduating from gymnasium course with the provision of the right to enter the University without a secondary examination and with the award for excellent performance in science gold medal",
. In the autumn of that year Alexander Stoletov enrolled in physics and mathematics faculty of Moscow University "kazennokoshtnym" a student with the provision of state scholarships.
In 1860, Mr.. Century, with honors, University ends. Almost immediately, the management of the Faculty seeks the abandonment of a talented young scientist at the university: in fact "kazennokoshtny" student is required after graduation to work out six years on the training of the Ministry of Public Education ",
. While lasted correspondence with official bodies, Stoletov not waste time: he spent whole days in the library, preparing for the master's exam. Finally, 5 September 1861. comes the long-awaited resolution, and already on October 16 STOLETOV shall submit his rector of the university: "Wanting to get a master's degree Physics, humbly beg you to allow me to convened by the test". The examination was successfully delivered, but the protection of the dissertation had to be postponed: summer 1862. A. G. STOLETOV sent to a trip abroad as the most worthy and promising candidate.
Abroad STOLETOV spent three years hard studying physics at the University of Heidelberg, GцTttingen and Berlin. Subsequently contemporaries remembered that those who took a course in Science Gustav Kirchhoff, heard stories "about a young Russian, who looked almost a boy, amazes everyone with his brilliant talent".
Abroad STOLETOV held its first scientific study. He found that the dielectric properties of the medium does not affect the electromagnetic interaction between conductors of electric current. At the end of 1865. Coming back to Russia and soon the place gets a teacher of mathematical physics and physical geography at Moscow University. He not only reads the brilliant lectures to students, . but working on a master's thesis, . devoted to "the general problem of electrostatics" - on induced charges on the original uncharged conductor in the presence of a charged, . the impact of these charges on a charged conductor and the redistribution of charges until the onset of electrostatic equilibrium,
. Young scientist could solve this problem for the most common case: the interaction of an arbitrary number of conductors. And in May 1869. A.G. STOLETOV brilliantly defended his master's thesis and was approved at the rank of assistant professor.
. In subsequent years Stoletov efforts were aimed at creating his own physics laboratory at the university: in fact for experimental studies of physics have been forced to go abroad
. This period was marked by the life of the scientist and the creation of the physical circle - a prototype school Stoletov.
In 1871, Mr.. scientist starts working on his doctoral dissertation, devoted to the study of magnetic properties of iron. I must say that at the time of electrical engineering as a science has not yet been. That's why it was very important to develop a theory of electrical machines, and, in particular, to establish regularities in the magnetization of iron and its alloys. To perform research STOLETOV again went abroad (efforts to establish national laboratories have so far failed). In the laboratory he succeeded Kirchhoff found that in weak magnetic fields with increasing magnetic induction Bo magnetic permeability m is not constant, but increases rapidly, reaches a maximum at some value of Bo and decreases slowly. It also turned out that the maximum value of permeability was several times higher than that known at that time the values of m from the work of other researchers.
. Sam STOLETOV characterized the practical significance of their research: "Study of the function of the magnetization of iron may have practical importance in the device and used as the electromagnetic motors, . and those new kind of magnetoelectric machines, . in which the temporary magnetization of iron plays a major role,
. Knowing the properties of iron: it is also necessary here, as should be familiar with the properties of steam for the theory of steam engines. Only with this knowledge, we have the opportunity to discuss a priori the optimum design of such a projectile and calculate in advance its useful effect.
His diligence and talent of the scientist was not in vain: in 1972. STOLETOV successfully defended his doctoral thesis "Study on the function of magnetization of soft iron, and next year is approved in the position of full professor at Moscow University.
1972 became not only a year of successfully defending his doctoral thesis, it also marked the opening of the physics laboratory, the organization which for centuries has spent much effort and money. Now Russian scientists do not have to travel abroad for research! Alyaksandr Lukashenka is also active in promotional work in the Society of Naturalists, . public lectures at the Polytechnical Museum, . wrote popular science articles, . devotes much time and physical mug.,
. After defending his doctoral dissertation century becomes a world-renowned scientist
. In 1874,. he was invited to the celebrations of the opening of the physics laboratory at Cambridge University, and in 1881. He is Russia's science at the I World Congress of Electricians in Paris. The Congress STOLETOV makes a report on the results of their research to determine the coefficients of proportionality between the electrostatic and electromagnetic units. On his proposal was approved by the unit of electrical resistance - ohms, and the standard of resistance.
In 1988. Century has begun a study of the photoelectric effect, open a year before etogoGertsem. These studies, which lasted two years, brought the world fame scientist. In the manuscripts preserved Stoletov installation scheme, in which he conducted his experiments. The main part of the installation - mesh capacitor, consisting of a metal grid - anode and a flat metal disk - cathode. Net capacitor C in series with the galvanometer G in the circuit with a battery B. In light of the cathode light voltaic arc A galvanometer recorded the presence of current in the circuit. Based on numerous experiments century made the following conclusions: a necessary condition for the photoelectric effect is the absorption of light by the cathode material, each element of the cathode surface is involved in the phenomenon independently of the others; photoelectric effect almost without inertia.,
. By placing the device in a glass cylinder, from which it was possible to pump out the air, Stoletov found that when the pressure is reduced photocurrent increases, reaches a maximum and then decreases
. It also turned out that the magnitude of the photocurrent is proportional to the light flux incident on the cathode. After a series of many experiments A.G. STOLETOV brought law connecting the critical pressure, electromotive force of the battery and the distance between the electrode and the grid. It was found that the ratio of the product of the critical pressure and the distance (between the electrode and the grid) to the electromotive force is constant, called later the constant Stoletov.
In 1893, Mr.. Three academics - Chebyshev, and Bredikhin Beketov - Stoletov to recommend the nomination of members of the Russia Academy of Sciences. But the Grand Duke Constantine, president of the Academy, do not allow freedom-loving and honest candidate Stoletov to ballots. At a legitimate question about the reasons for refusal brother, Alexander G., Nicholas, general and hero of the battle of Shipka, received a reply irritable Prince: "Do your brother's impossible character". Many scientists from Russia and other countries have expressed their sympathy Stoletov in connection with the manifest to him injustice. For example, Professor S. H Shvedov wrote Stoletov from Odessa: "What you tell me in your last letter, I am not at all surprised: After all, voted against the same once Mendeleev: I would be comforted by the fact that the best contemporary Russian scientists - Mendeleev, after we - not in the poorhouse. Being in their company is not ashamed ".
Despite the sympathy of friends, A.G. STOLETOV grieved at the failure. Yes, and university authorities are increasingly beginning to show dissatisfaction with their independent judgments. All this was reflected in weakened since childhood health scientist. In May 1896,. Alexander G. died from a serious illness - pneumonia.

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