Brook Isaak Semenovich( Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences)
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Biography Brook Isaak Semenovich
He began his scientific career in the electricity. Working in the Energy Institute of USSR Academy of Sciences (ENIN), Brooke in 1939 created a mechanical integrator for solving differential equations, in fact, an analog digital computer. And in 1948, together with B.I. Rameevym drafted a digital computer with a rigid program control, in which scientists have come very close to the idea of Stored Program.
In 1950-51 in the laboratory ENIN (actually a semi-legal conditions), Brook and several of his talented students have developed and implemented the first small-sized tube-like electronic computer M-1. Such a machine is relatively small size could be used in research laboratories for various tasks. M-1 to perform operations on 20-bit binary numbers at a rate of 15-20 op / s and had a magnetic drum memory capacity of 256 numbers. Element base of about 500 electron tubes, as well as several thousands of semiconductor devices, first used in the design of computer. They were captured German rectifiers.
Brook's first machine was really the first in many respects - the originality of the idea of a small computer, the use of new types of items - semiconductors, finally, that this was the first working machine in Moscow. BESM and Strela were still at the stage of installation, when the M-1 started to address the real problem. Although this machine, . like SECM, . actually created in the performance of a breadboard, . on it to make serious calculations, . example, . for Office Kurchatov and missile problems, . solved in KB under the leadership of the Queen Immediately after the completion of its first vehicle Brook conceives M-2, . which is the chief designer Mikhail Kartsev, . who joined the team while still a student at Brook MEI,
M-2 was much more powerful and structurally perfect system compared to its predecessor, although it is classified as a small-sized computer. Work on it was carried out in record time - from April to December 1952. M-2 operated at 2 thousand. operations per second and included more than half thousand tubes. The machine is operated for a long time, 15 years, and in the first years of its existence, shared the computational load with only two actually existing computers in the Soviet Union - BESM and Strela. Challenges for M-2 offers a very serious organization, including myself ENIN, Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Institute of weather forecasts, MAI, Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Economics, Institute of Mechanics, USSR Academy of Sciences and other. In June 1956, earned M-3, another machine laboratory Brook
New brainchild laboratory electrical ENIN - M-3 - embodied the finalized Brooke concept compact car. Brook's idea was, . to expand the range of computer, . making them accessible computing laboratory, . Scientific Institutions, . Design Bureau, . which needed digital computers, . but the problem did not require a record speed,
In 1957, the laboratory Brook (LUMS) has started development of a computer for the radar station - M-4. The management of radar has very high demands on the amount of information processing speed, memory capacity, the reliability of the machine. Kartsev possessed an outstanding engineering talent, the developers over the years with Brook have become real professionals in the new area, and the car came out successful and in many ways pioneering. For the first time the internal memory has been divided into the RAM data and ROM programs and constants. As a result of increased resistance to failure and fault tolerance, reliability of machines. In the M-4 appeared special processor I / O, thus paralleling data processing and exchange with external devices, and M-4 to work faster. Hardware acceleration square root - in the problems of this kind, this operation takes about 30% of the total bill.
But most importantly, M-4 was one of the first cars on a fundamentally new element base - semiconductor transistors (except the memory, which is still achieved in ferrites). Brooke drew attention to the promising possibilities of semiconductor elements in the very beginning of work on computers, and when in 1957 the country has begun commercial production of transistors, LUMS actively engaged in studying their properties. And they came to the conclusion that the transistors can build a reliable machine with a speed not lower than 10 thousand. operations per second. M-4 is considered a speed of 20 thousand. operations per second.
The next computer from the series became M-5. M-5 was conceived as a multiprogramming and mnogoterminalnaya computers - is also very advanced for its time the idea. Multiprogram meant that the machine can work simultaneously with multiple, up to eight programs, so that when the execution of operations is one of them, the external devices are sharing information to others. In addition, it was possible to run through the already prepared the program and to simultaneously debug multiple programs with terminal consoles. Work with multiple programs could go as in batch mode and time-sharing, and to effectively support multi-tasking developers have implemented pagination RAM. As a result, M-5 provided a capacity of 50 thousand. operations per second.
In the late 50's IS. Brooke put forward the idea of using small computers as control of machinery. For the first time proposed to use computer equipment not only for large mathematical, physical or technical calculations, but also in meeting the challenges of technological objects, and even economic processes. Eden Brook impetus to the establishment in the late 50's a number of research organizations to control machines. In particular, based on brukovskoy laboratory ENIN in 1958 appeared Institute of Electronic Control Machines (INEUM USSR). Its first director was himself Brook. The Institute in the 60 years to develop new models of machines M series for control applications in various sectors of the economy. In the 70 INEUM became the lead organization for the creation of a series of small control computers - CM Computer.
In 1958 the USSR in the series "Questions of Soviet Science" published an issues paper "Development of the theory, principles of design and use of specialized computing and controlling machines". In this work, Brooke organizes proposals for the application of computers in the automation industry. He formulated the main directions of research on the management of technological objects with the help of computers and create management systems that include as a necessary link person - operator control computer.
IS. Brooke was a man of outstanding and highly original. Stylistically, his work it was, rather, a single scientist, a generator of ideas that have caught up and realize his students and colleagues. But he switched his creative energies and talents to something new. Advertising for themselves and their scientific advances do not know how, why focus on the development of small computers sounds, perhaps, not so loud as those of the creators of the superior machines of the first and second generation.
In the last period of his life scientist interested in the problems of the economy and the possibilities of computers for economic management. This interest has arisen in the early 60's, when the country is showing signs of economic change, the conference was the economic reform. However, the active intervention Brook in solving economic problems is not welcomed, and in 1964 it actually "out" on retirement. But then the scientist continued to conduct research, remained scientific advisor and head of scientific-technical council INEUM.