LEBEDEV Sergey Alekseevich( Outstanding Designer computing)
Comments for LEBEDEV Sergey Alekseevich
Biography LEBEDEV Sergey Alekseevich
Sergei Alekseevich Lebedev November 2, 1902, Mr.. in Nizhny Novgorod in the teacher's family.
In 1928, Mr.. SA. Lebedev graduated from the Moscow Higher Technical School of. BC. Bauman (Moscow Higher Technical School). His thesis work done under the guidance of an outstanding scientist KA. Circle, was devoted to the stability of parallel operation of power plants and had a great scientific and practical significance. Upon graduation SA. Lebedev Moscow Higher Technical School and became a teacher at the same time a staff member of All-Union Electrotechnical Institute. VI. Lenin (VEI). In 1935. he was promoted to professor in 1939, not being a candidate of science, defended his doctoral dissertation related to his theory of artificial stability of power systems.
During the war, SA. Lebedev developed a system of stabilization of tank guns when aiming, adopted by the arms, the analog system of automatic homing on the target aircraft torpedoes. In 1945, Mr.. SA. Lebedev has created the country's first electronic analog computer for solving systems of ordinary differential equations, which are often encountered in problems related to energy.
In 1946, Mr.. SA. Lebedev was invited to the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for the post of Director of the Institute of Energy. A year later, The Energy Institute is divided into two, and SA. Lebedev became the director of the Institute of Electrical Sciences of Ukraine. Here, together with L.V. Tsukernikom SA. Lebedev performed research on the management of power systems and the development of automation devices that enhance the stability of power systems. In 1950, Mr.. SA. Lebedev and L.V. Tsukerniku was awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
Solving the problem of electrical engineering and energy with the help of analog computers, SA. Lebedev has come for the task of creating a digital machine.
Since the autumn of 1948. SA. Lebedev began development of small electronic counting machines (SECM). To define a set of operations SECM he invited to come to Kiev AA. Dorodnitsyna and KA. Semendyaeva. Fundamentals of building SECM discussed in the January-March 1949. on the created SA. Lebedev seminar which was attended by MA. Lavrent'ev, BV. Gnedenko, A.YU. Ishlinskii, AA. Kharkevich and laboratory staff SA. Lebedev.
By the end of 1949. defined schematic diagram of blocks machine. In 1950, Mr.. SECM was mounted in a two-story building of the former monastery in the Theophany (near Kiev), which housed the laboratory of SA. Lebedev.
In late 1951. SECM was tested and was accepted into service by the Commission of the USSR Academy of Sciences headed by Academician M.V. Keldysh. In 1952, Mr.. SECM to solve major scientific and technological tasks from the field of thermonuclear processes (YA.B. Zel'dovich), space flight and rocketry (M.V. Keldysh, AA. Dorodnitsyn, AA. Lyapunov), long-distance power transmission lines (SA. Lebedev), mechanics (GN. Savin), statistical quality control (BV. Gnedenko).
In 1950, when the model was tested SECM, such machine was only in England - EDSAC Maurice Wilkes, 1949, with EDSAC arithmetic unit was consistent.
In 1950, Mr.. SA. Lebedev in Moscow began to develop large electronic computer (BESM). In March 1950, Mr.. He was appointed head of the Laboratory of the Institute of Fine Mechanics and Computer Science (ITM and VT), whose director was MA. Lavrentiev. Development arithmetic unit BESM SA. Lebedev asked PP. Golovistikovu and control devices - KS. Nesluhovskomu. Above BESM worked and student interns from high schools that have served their diploma work - layout of individual blocks and a description of relevant sections of the draft design BESM: VS. Burtsev, VA. Melnikov, A.G. Louth, I.D. Vizun, A.S. Fedorov, LA,. Orlov. In April 1951, Mr.. State Commission chaired M.V. Keldysh adopted draft projects BESM and Strela.
In I quarter 1953. BESM was established, and in April 1953. adopted by the State Commission in operation. Due to the lack of electronic tubes, which are supplied then only for the "Arrows", the first three years of BESM operated with memory for acoustic mercury tubes, which reduced its speed by several times. In 1956, Mr.. BESM was adopted by the State Commission for the second - with the memory Storage tube.
In 1956, Mr.. Report SA. Lebedev's BESM of an international conference in Darmstadt, made a splash - BESM was at the level of the best American cars and very fast in Europe.
In 1958, Mr.. BESM memory on ferrite cores 2048 words sent in serial production, it was produced under the name of the BESM-2 plant of. Volodarskogo.
In 1953, Mr.. on the recommendation MA. Lavrentiev, who became vice-president of the USSR, SA. Lebedev was appointed director of ITM and VT. In 1953, Mr.. He was elected a member of the USSR.
In 1955, Mr.. SA. Lebedev began to develop the M-20 (the figure in the name refers to the expected performance - 20 thousand. op. / s). This computation speed then had no car in the world. Decree of the Government of the USSR creation of M-20 was charged with ITM and VT and SKB-245. SA. Lebedev became the chief designer, mK. Sulim (SKB-245) - his deputy. Ideology and structure of the M-20 developed SA. Lebedev, a system of commands - M.R. Shura-Bura, circuit element base - PP. Golovistikov. MK. Sulim led the development of technical documentation and manufacturing of the prototype in the SKB-245.
In 1958, Mr.. The State Commission adopted the M-20 and recommended it to production.
For the first time in domestic practice in the M-20 SA. Lebedev to increase productivity were implemented automatic address modification, . combination of the arithmetic unit and fetch from memory, . introduction of buffer memory for data arrays, . Granted print, . combination of input and output data with a score, . use of fully synchronous transmission of signals in logic circuits,
Later versions were developed semiconductor M-20, implementing the same architecture: M-220 and M-222 (chief designer - mK. Sulim) BESM-3M and BESM-4 (chief designer - O.P.
ITM and VT after the completion of tube BESM-2 and M-20 began designing semiconductor BESM-6, which had a speed of 1 million. op. / s. Chief designer of the BESM-6 was SA. Lebedev, deputy - his disciples VA. Melnikov and LN. Korolev.
In 1967. State Commission chaired M.V. Keldysh took BESM-6 with the highest rating and recommended it to serial production.
BESM-6 had a complete software. In its establishment attended by many leading developers of the country
. Based on the BESM-6 computer centers have been established for the collective use of scientific organizations, . automation systems research in nuclear physics and other fields of science, . information and computer information processing system in real time,
. It was used to simulate complex physical processes and management processes, systems design software for new computer.
BESM-6 was produced by the Moscow factory of accounting machines (SAM) for 17 years. For the development and implementation of BESM-6 of its creators (from ITM and VT - SA. Lebedev, VA. Melnikov, LN. Korolev, LA,. Zak, VN. Louth, VI. Smirnov, AA. Sokolov, AN. Tomilin, M.V. Tyapkin from the factory itself - VA. Ivanov, VY. Semeshkin) were awarded the State Prize
. ITM and VT with the factory itself on the BESM-6 has developed a computer system AS-6, a modular organization and unified channels of communication which provides the possibility of constructing decentralized multimachine computing systems
. In the AS-6 was provided with effective implementation of translators from high-level languages, multi-level system of protection based memory mechanisms of the stack. The operating system AS-6, built on the principle of decentralization, maintains a packet processing, remote batch processing, time sharing, real-time. AS-6 was used for data processing and management systems, space experiments, as well as a number of data centers of large research organizations.
Specialized computers, created under the leadership of SA. Lebedeva for a missile defense system, became the basis of achievement of strategic parity between the USSR and the United States during the Cold War. In 1952-1955,. pupil SA. Lebedev VS. Burtsev developed specialized computer Diana-1 "and" Diana-2 "for the automatic removal of data from radar and automatic target tracking. Then, for a missile defense system, which was the general designer GV. Kisun'ko, in 1958. lamp was offered the M-40, and a little later than the M-50 (float).
Ability to defeat ballistic missiles, backed by missile defense, forced the U.S. to seek ways of concluding a treaty with the USSR on the Limitation of ABM, which appeared in 1972. The creators of the first missile defense system received the Lenin Prize. Among them were GV. Kisun'ko, SA. Lebedev and VS. Burtsev.
To see the issue the next series of high-performance computers, which developed the ITM and VT, SA. Lebedev, no chance. Sergey Lebedev died July 3, 1974, Mr.. Moscow. He is buried at Novodevichy Cemetery. SA Name. Lebedev now is ITM and VT. Pupils SA. Lebedeva set up their own scientific schools and groups.