Myaskovsky Nikolay Yakovlevich( Music)
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Biography Myaskovsky Nikolay Yakovlevich
Nikolai Yakovlevich Myaskovsky (1881-1950)
Nikolai Myaskovsky was a military engineer, 20 April 1881 in the fortress of Modlin near Warsaw. Childhood he spent in constant traveling - Orenburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod. In 1893, after two classes of secondary school, Nikolai Myaskovsky, followed his older brother, Sergei, identified in boarding school - Nizhny Novgorod Cadet Corps. Then in 1895, Myaskovsky was transferred to the Second St. Petersburg Cadet Corps. His military education, he completed the Military Engineering School. After a brief stay in the service in the combat engineers in Zaraisk he was transferred to Moscow.
By that time has passed Myaskovsky learned harmony with NI. Kazanli - leader of the orchestra Cadets - and tried to compose.
Once in Moscow, from January to May 1903 dealt with Myaskovsky and Gliere walked the entire course of harmony. This was a period of intense labor: day devoted several hours of music, then Myaskovsky nights poring over job assignments.
Classes theory Myaskovsky - on the advice of Glier - continued under the leadership I.I. Kryzhanovsky, a pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov. Thus, at an early stage, Nick drew experience from the two composers' schools: Moscow and St. Petersburg. Three years have Kryzhanovsky Myaskovsky studied counterpoint, fugue, form and orchestration.
Finally in the summer of 1906, without the knowledge of the military authorities, Myaskovsky passed the exams and entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory. The spring of 1907 Myaskovsky handed in his resignation, but only a year later was expelled in stock. However, in the summer, got leave for necessary treatment, he felt the first time in my life almost a professional musician.
Romances on words Gippius were first published works of Myaskovsky. In the conservatory years held creative Myaskovsky debut as an author of symphonic music. Myaskovsky's First Symphony was written in 1908 for a small orchestra and first performed June 2, 1914.
For symphony orchestra followed the story "The Silence" (1909) by Edgar Poe. Starting work on the "Fairy Tale", Prokofiev, Myaskovsky wrote: "Throughout the play there will be no bright notes - The darkness and horror". Very close to the mood and the second symphonic poem by Nikolai Yakovlevich - "Alastor", created three years after the "silence".
Tale "The Silence" composer Asafev considered the first mature work Myaskovsky, and in "Alastor" said a vivid musical description of the hero, skill development and exceptional expressiveness of the orchestra in the episodes of the storm and death.
Myaskovsky was thirty years old when he was in 1911 "quietly", by his own definition, graduated from the conservatory, showing Lyadov two quartets. In August 1911, and started musical criticism of the composer. For three years in the magazine "Music" was published 114 articles and notes Nicholas.
Speaking about his writings of the early period, including the prewar Third Symphony, Myaskovsky himself noted that almost all of them bear the imprint of deep pessimism. The reasons for this Nikolay Yakovlevich seen in circumstances of personal destiny ", . remembering, . almost thirty years, he was forced to fight for "liberation" from a military occupation imposed on him, . as well as the impact is still not overcome the effects of various goods,
Began in 1914 World War II for a long time diverted from Myaskovsky creative plans. In the first days of the tragic events, he was drafted into the army and left St. Petersburg, once again putting on the form of lieutenant engineer troops.
Severe concussion, received Myaskovsky under Przemysl, all seriously made itself felt, and so in 1916 he was out of the army was transferred to the construction of the fortress in Revel. Staying at the front, . communication with people, . with whom he went through the war and met the October Revolution, . gave the artist new experience, . he reflected in the Fourth and Fifth Symphonies, . composed of three and a half months - from December 20, 1917 to April 5, 1918,
Revolutionary events stirred up a huge country. And Myaskovsky, of course, could not at this difficult time to return to art. He served in the army until the end of the civil war - until 1921.
No idea hatched Myaskovsky not so painfully long, as the plan's Sixth Symphony. In early 1921 the composer made an outline. By the summer of 1922 they finally have been finalized, and the composer began to wedge symphony instrumentation.
Sixth Symphony - the multifaceted, complex composition and the most monumental work of Myaskovsky. Duration of 1 hour 4 minutes. Myaskovsky's Sixth Symphony, in the opinion of many music critics, one of the most powerful Russian symphonies in general. Symphony excites and captures the depth and sincerity of feelings fascinating. It is tragic in the highest sense, which drew attention to Aristotle, arguing that "the tragedy elevates the human soul".
Here's what he wrote VM. Belyaev, in a letter to one of his friends the next day after the May 4, 1924 at the Bolshoi Theater is running NS. Golovanov first performed this work: "... Symphony was a great success. For nearly a quarter of an hour the audience unnecessarily provoked the author who has run away, but still has his, and the author appeared. He called seven times and offered him a large laurel wreath
. Some prominent musicians wept, and some said that after the Sixth Symphony and Tchaikovsky is the first symphony, which is worthy of the name ... "
. None of the subsequent works, . Myaskovsky created in 1920, . among whom were four symphonies, . no scale design, . nor the strength of the artistic embodiment can not be on a par with the Sixth Symphony, . although they tried to display the problem composer, . born revolution,
In the second half of 1920 in Myaskovsky not just flying arrows Proletkult. So it was, for example, in 1926, when, in his open letter to supporters agitmuzyki accused of composers, headed by Nikolai Yakovlevich in an alien ideology.
Meanwhile Myaskovsky gaining popularity abroad. Leopold Stokowski, who served in January 1926 in Chicago, Philadelphia and New York's Fifth Symphony Myaskovsky, comes to play and sixth. In Zurich, the pianist Walter Gieseking announced in his recitals of his Fourth Piano Sonata. Koussevitzky through Prokofiev asked Myaskovsky musical material not yet published the Seventh Symphony, as he wanted to perform it in Paris.
January 24, 1926 in the Czech capital in the first symphony concert of contemporary Russian music was performed by Sixth and Seventh symphonies Myaskovsky. After the Seventh Symphony, premieres abroad, conductor Saradzhev called seven times, and the sixth had made such an impression that the public does not want to let him off the stage.
Saradzhev honor to present modern Russian music, and in Vienna. The concert March 1, 1926 he again conducted the Sixth Symphony Myaskovsky. Dr Paul Squeak reported from Vienna that the conductor of the Moscow "took a very hot" and that work "met with full recognition". With no less success shortly after the Sixth Symphony in the concert of chamber music in Vienna, was performed the vocal part of the suite Myaskovsky "Madrigal".
Perhaps the only surprising modesty and desire to remain in the shadows made by Nikolai Yakovlevich refusing to take trips abroad. Only once Myaskovsky briefly left home. That was in November of the same in 1926. However B.L. Jaworski, he represented the then Soviet musical public at the celebrations in Warsaw, associated with the long-awaited opening of the monument where F. Chopin.
Of all the twenty-seven symphonies by Myaskovsky, only two of this one. One of them belongs to the most popular of his works - a Twenty-first. Other - Tenth (1927), inspired by "The Bronze Horseman" by Pushkin, the least known. Meanwhile Tenth Symphony deserves more attention if only because it is - a real miracle of polyphony. Tenth Symphony - Russian and very deep "Petersburg". Fully aware of this, Myaskovsky was not surprised when in 1930 he received from Prokofiev's message that played in Philadelphia Stokowski Symphony was a success.
Perhaps no one essay Myaskovsky not talking and did not write as much as on the Twelfth Symphony, called "kolkhoz" (1932). Researchers consider it a landmark piece, . with which the "enlightenment" and the democratization of music Myaskovsky, . Stressing the direct treatment of the author to the Soviet topics, . optimistic vision works, . clarity of intent, . availability of its perception,
. At the same time point out a number of disadvantages associated with the search for new images and the means of expression. Myaskovsky and he did not deny that the symphony came sketchy, and the least successful third part only outwardly expresses its author's intent.
Driven by the impatient creative thought, Myaskovsky composed one symphony after another.
At the end of 1934 new - Thirteenth Symphony sounded almost simultaneously in Moscow (conductor L. Ginsburg) and Chicago (conductor F. Stoke). Autumn 1935 G. Scherchen performed it in Winterthur (Switzerland).
Fourteenth Symphony Myaskovsky tried to make a bright and dynamic. The overall tone of cheerful, lively. Myaskovsky himself called it "a rather reckless little thing", but noted that it is "the pulse of modern life".
Sixteenth Myaskovsky symphony is one of the brightest pages in the history of the Soviet symphonic music. Prokofiev, . was present in the Great Hall of the Conservatory at the opening concert of the season of the Moscow Philharmonic on Oct. 24, 1936, . when the symphony was first performed under control of the Hungarian conductor Eugen Senkara, . wrote in a review, . placed in the newspaper "Soviet Art": "In the beauty of the material, . skills of presentation and overall harmony of sentiment - is now a great art, . without looking for external effects and without peremigivaniya with the audience ",
In the final, saturated with song and dance motifs, continues the glorification of the Soviet Air. To specify the image Myaskovsky the basis of the main parties put the melody of its mass song "Flying planes, beginning with the words" that the edge of our growing ". Symphony was a huge success. In a memorable evening premiere of the author had a lot of time to go on stage. That was a real triumph, the joy for which Myaskovsky strengthened by the fact that next to him was, Prokofiev, and not as a guest, by coincidence, hit it at this time in Moscow, but as someone already settled here permanently.
In the work of Myaskovsky came unusually productive period. In the four pre-war years they were composed of five (!) Symphonies, including the real gems - Twenty-first. For five days (!) Myaskovsky sketched drawings of this symphony, and immediately began her lace orchestral colors.
Last Symphony little more than 17 minutes. The composer demonstrates the ultimate form of conciseness, clarity of language and the highest polyphonic skill.
Igor Belza so characterizes this work: "The idea of Twenty-first symphony is inextricably linked with images of his native land, its wondrous beauty and the vast expanse. But music symphony goes far beyond lyrically contemplative mood, because the product is warmed birth of our reality, a feeling of joyful elation, bright optimism, cheerfulness and courage. These feelings, expressed deep national means of expression, sound in the Twenty-first Myaskovsky symphony, which could be created only Russian musician living in the Soviet era.
At the beginning of World War II composer responded composing three war songs. Following the march there were two songs for brass band - "heroic" and "Cheerful". In the evacuation in Nalchik Myaskovsky composed Twenty-second symphony, which was originally called the "Symphony-Ballad of the Great Patriotic War".
Health Nikolai Yakovlevich during the war worsened. Operation made Myaskovsky in February 1949, only slightly improved his mood. In the end, the doctors suggested to the composer a new operation, but he refused, seeking at all costs to complete the twenty-seventh symphony. In May 1950, Myaskovsky operated, but alas ... it was too late. Transplanted to the country soon Nikolay Yakovlevich quickly extinguished. August 8 Myaskovsky died.
Shortly after the death of the composer premiered Twenty-seventh symphony.
... Stopped the orchestra, and assembled in the hall sat motionless as if spellbound. The ability to capture, conquer the listeners with their music, get to live in a world created by his manner and sense in the twenty-seventh symphony Myaskovsky demonstrated with exceptional strength. It took some time for people to return to the real situation. Then the conductor Gauk high above his head raised the score, and everything in the room, standing long and warmly applauded, expressing their admiration and gratitude heard the master who created this magnificent work. On that memorable evening the first performance of this symphony was widely seen as a testament masters, put into his last work full force of talent and skills.