Addison, Joseph( The English writer and statesman)
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Biography Addison, Joseph
Addison, Joseph (Addison, Joseph) (1672-1719), English statesman and writer, co-author R. Steele on the magazine 'spectator'. Born May 1, 1672 in Milstone (Wiltshire), the family priest. In 1683 his father became the rector of the cathedral at Lichfield, and Joseph went to the local school Latin grammar. In 1686 was admitted to the Charterhouse School in London, where he met with Robert Steele. From 1687 to 1699 he studied at Oxford University, first at Queens College, then in Modlin College. In 1691 began the bachelor, in 1693 - Master. In 1698 enrolled in graduate Modlin College. Addison gained fame as a scholar and poet, struck up a friendship with D. Draydenom and U. Kongrivom. In 1699, in preparation for the diplomatic service, received a royal grant of 200 pounds for a trip to the continent and from 1699 to 1703 traveled to Europe.
In 1704, returning to England, wrote a poem commissioned by the Government Hike (Campaign) in honor of the victory in the Battle of Blenheim. In the same year he was appointed to the commission on appeal, and a year later took the place of Assistant Secretary of State and published the Tour of Italy (Travels in Italy). In 1706, accompanied by the Earl of Halifax to Hanover with an important diplomatic mission. In 1707, the stage was set Addison's opera Rosamond (Rosamond), which had no success. In 1708, Addison was elected to parliament and from 1708 to 1710 served as the Chief Secretary of the Irish viceroy. By this time, include his article in the journal 'Chatter' ( 'The Tatler'), which from April 1709 began to let his friend Steele. 'Chatter' came out three times a week and remained mostly the magazine style, but Addison wrote to him for more than 40 essays.
After closing 'chatterbox' Addison and Steele began with a March 1, 1711 to produce a much more well-known magazine - 'spectator' ( 'The Spectator'), published six times a week. Perhaps the greatest success in the 'Attendance' enjoyed the essays devoted to Sir Roger de Koverli and his friends, with both authors affect a variety of topics: literary criticism, social mores, religion, morality, and even fashion. Until 6 December 1712, when the magazine ceased to exist, it turned out 555 rooms. Addison composed for the 'Spectator' 274 essays, which signed a four-letter CLIO, forming the name of the muse of history. June 18, 1714, he resumed edition of 'The Spectator' already without Steele, the journal published twice a week until December 20, but did not enjoy the same success.
In 1713, Addison wrote 53 essays for the magazine 'The Guardian' ( 'Guardian'), which Steele began producing instead of 'Spectator'. In April of that year was put classical tragedy Addison's Cato (Cato), which was a huge success - partly because it contained political allusions. In 1715, after the Jacobite rebellion, Addison started coming out twice a week, the magazine 'freeholder' ( 'Freeholder', December 23, 1715 - June 29, 1716), derided the Jacobite. In 1716 the theater 'Drury Lane' was anonymously delivered his comedy The Drummer (The Drummer), which had no success. In the same year he married Charlotte, Countess of Warwick, which took care of almost twelve years.
In 1717, Addison reached the pinnacle of a political career, becoming a minister and a member of the Privy Council. Shortly before his death, he joined the ill-fated argument with style at the Parliament held in the Bill of Peerage. Bill Steele wrote a pamphlet against the plebeian (The Plebeian), Addison replied pamphlet Old Whig (The Old Whig).
Addison died at his Holland House (London) June 17, 1719. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.