Thomas de Colmar, Charles Xavier( French entrepreneur, founder of the first commercial calculating machine.)
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Biography Thomas de Colmar, Charles Xavier
Thomas de Colmar, Charles Xavier (Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar) (1785-1870), a French entrepreneur, founder of the first commercial calculating machine.
In 1820, Tom created the adder, based on the principle of Leibniz calculator that can perform multiplication and division. In their capacity calculating machine exceeded all known at the time machine, so how could operate tridtsatiznachnymi numbers. Although Thomas received a patent for his adding machine in the same year, the first calculating machines appeared in stores only in the early 1840's. Thomas de Colmar was not a simple mechanic, forced to produce and sell adding machine for food. He was a military officer during the Spanish and Portuguese campaigns 1809-13 period, before deciding to do a completely new business, which has devoted the rest of his life.
Its wide distribution in the second half of the 19 century adding machine must not progress in the field of computer technology, and competition in the market of computational tools. Tom himself an enormous effort to promote his creation. In the end, this robust device firmly taken its place on the office desks and successfully sold over the next 90 years.
In 1844, Tom presented his adding machine in the French National exhibition of industrial goods, which, however, yielded the palm to the counting machine Roth. In 1849, Tom decided to try his luck again. At this time, he was awarded the silver medal and three-page report of the jury, but the highest award received "Aritmorel" Morel and Zheye, computer, whose properties were assessed higher. In 1851 in London, Tom suffered a new disappointment: his adding machine gave primacy calculator Staffell.
After the successive failures of Tom began to more actively promote our adder. During these years he extensively altered and improved his device. Tom published a description of an adding machine and sent it to all the crowned and the aristocracy of Europe, thus won many awards in the period from 1851 to 1855. The World Exhibition in Paris in 1855 Tom has built a giant two-meter adder, which occupied a table and serve it must have been just two people. But luck again betrayed him - a gold medal was the differential analyzer Swedish engineers George and Edward Shoyttsev. Ironically, the Swedish car was prepared for a short life - was sold just two copies of it, while adding machine gradually gain recognition. Since late 1870, when the issue of adding machines has grown considerably, for them the reputation of the first standard in computing. For his invention of Tom was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor.