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BUTLER Samuel

( English writer)

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BUTLER, SAMUEL (Butler, Samuel) (1835-1902), English writer. Born Dec. 4, 1835 at Langar, near Bingema (Nottinghamshire County), the family priest. He studied first at Shrewsbury, cheekbones, and then at St. John's College, Cambridge University, graduating in 1858. In 1859 he emigrated to New Zealand, where he bred sheep. There he read the Origin of Species Charles Darwin and became an ardent supporter of the theory of evolution. Promoted Darwin's ideas in the local newspapers. Successfully engaging in sheep farming, Butler doubled its capital, and in 1864 he returned to England. For several years he devoted to the study of painting and processing of early essays, which were subsequently included in his first book, "Edgin" (Erehwon, 1872), inspired by vivid recollections of life in New Zealand. In this satirical novel, a young Englishman opens the country Edgin (an anagram of the word 'nowhere'), customs and social system which - nothing, as ironically transformed Victorian Britain. The book won instant success, although it remained the only publication of the Butler, who brought some profit. His next book "safe haven" (The Fair Haven, 1873) - A statement of the rationalist views of the author. Over time, Butler came to the conclusion that Darwin had underestimated role in the evolution of individual consciousness. In his later years Butler has translated "Odyssey" and "Iliad", and published a book "Odyssey of the writer" (Authoress of Odyssey, 1897), which argued that the author of the epic poem was a woman. His last important works were "re-read the sonnets of Shakespeare" (Shakespeare's Sonnets Reconsidered, 1899) and "Return to Edgin" (Erehwon Revisited, 1901). Autobiographical novel "Way of all flesh" (The Way of All Flesh), was published in 1903. Other publications: "The Alps and temples" (Alps and Sanctuaries, 1881), "Ex Voto" (The Offering, 1888) - about the art of northern Italy, "Essays on the life, art and science" (Essays on Life, Art, and Science, 1904) and "Notebooks" (Note-Books, 1912).
Butler died in London on June 18, 1902.


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