FORTUSHENKO Alexander D.( Scientific)
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Biography FORTUSHENKO Alexander D.
All, . who directly or indirectly associated with the development of satellite communications, . know the name of a prominent scientist, . initiator Telecommunications Satellite Organization, . double-State Award, . Honored Worker of Science and Technology, . Dr.Sci.Tech, . Professor Alexander D. Fortushenko,
. It is known that twenty years of his life he gave the Research Institute for the radio, and in fact was his creator, the founder of a special, fortushenkovskoy school.
Admittedly, under the leadership of Alexander Dmitrievich, or A. D., as it is affectionately called the staff, the institute has become one of the leading scientific centers of the country's radio and broadcasting. It is in these years the Institute has approached the organization of satellite communications.
Incidentally, the idea of organizing itself satellite belongs to A. D. Fortushenko that after launching the first artificial earth satellites realized that they can be used to transmit signals over great distances. Under his leadership, developed all the ground equipment systems with IFH like "Lightning", . put in place a network of stations of the Orbita, . preparing a draft of the state system of satellite communications, . chief designer of which was Alexander D.,
. At the same time created an international system Intersputnik, satellite television broadcasting "Screen", a multi-channel satellite radio, etc.
Such a powerful realization of the potential A. D. Fortushenko was not accidental. His whole life was proof of great spiritual strength, faith and moral rectitude. Even in childhood, when serious illness confined him to three years to bed, he gave himself to relax - hard preparing to enter a real school. As an exception was adopted in the fourth grade. Moreover, the first student. And further, although the disease did not let him go, he wanted to continue their education. Therefore, when the Red Army liberated the Crimea, and he then lived in Sebastopol, Alexander D. arrives in the evening working University. However, the level of teaching it is not appropriate for the Fortushenko, and soon he moved to Moscow, where he immediately goes to the Institute of National Economy. Plekhanov on the faculty of the Electrical Industry. Here's the start of its major universities.
His teachers were P. V. Shmakov and M. V. Shuleikin, as head of practice - B. A. Vvedensky. After graduation, talented young man immediately offered a leading scientist in the communications department of the newly organized State Electrotechnical Institute, where he worked with scientists and specialists, as P. V. Shmakov, C. I. Kataev, V. K. Vitorsky, M. T. Grekhova, A. G. Arenberg, Danilevsky Turlygina, Archangel, Tager, Djigit. Of course, such cooperation could not but affect the outlook of Alexander D., his technical and scientific level. In fact, Alexander D. was involved in the emergence of Soviet television. It is in this institute began the development of electronic television, ultrashort-wave devices, systems, sound film. It was here that Alexander D., along with P. V. Shmakov participated in organizing the first in the country of broadcast television, the development of the country's first electronic television.
In 1933, becoming assistant professor at the Academy of Telecommunications. Podbelskogo, Alexander D. organized laboratory television, where he continued in-depth studies in the field of electronic television. At the same time it as one of the best graduate of the Academy sends for training abroad - in Germany, France and England. Three months overseas - a short period, but during this time he managed to thoroughly acquainted with the development of television in those countries. And returning to Moscow, he brilliantly defended his thesis "On the extension of the limit of sensitivity of TV transmitters through electron multiplier". After that, he was appointed chief engineer of the Moscow television center on Shabolovka. And once again travel abroad - first to probation in New York Telecentre, then - in Cairo, to attend the International Conference on Wireless. One job after another, and each time the following interesting previous. So 1938. no exception. This year, he headed the Central Research Institute of Communications, and a little more than two years, it represents the position of Deputy Commissar of communication.
A total of 18 years have passed since Fortushenko turned up in Moscow. But what great strides he made during this time, a scientific and organizational capacity has managed to accumulate. And this despite the fact that he was at that time was only 38 years old. Practically his whole life was ahead. Experience, scope, knowledge, character - all he had to do a truly large-scale business. But come 1941.
A war broke. D. Fortushenko in Ukraine, where he went to inspect the communications and broadcasting. There he was left in order to help the military and local signalers to dismantle and evacuate the enterprise communications. Just returned to Moscow - immediately took up the transfer to the East of powerful radio stations and the creation of stand-point radio. Under his supervision the same was being built super-powerful radio station broadcasting in Kuibyshev. At the same time on his recommendation to Ufa broadcasting station has been relocated them. Comintern, whose call sign "This is Moscow" soon again I heard the whole country. Well, and then was evacuated to Sverdlovsk powerful shortwave station, construction of powerful radio center in Irkutsk, the rehabilitation and the return of business communications to the liberated areas. There was one very important task, of which Alexander D. remembered, not without pride.
It so happened that the Yugoslav Partisans were without connection. At the request of the chairman of the Comintern, Georgi Dimitrov's Commissariat of the USSR's Fortushenko instructed to solve this problem. So, first from Moscow, while she was away from the events of the war, and then from Kuibyshev and Ufa relationship was established. In 1945, Mr.. for performing tasks Alexander D. was awarded the Order of the Yugoslav "Brotherhood and Unity" I degree. In the same year he was awarded the Order of Lenin, and even earlier, in 1943, for the construction of radio centers in time of war - the Order of Red Banner of Labor. And with the baggage behind him, Alexander D. came close to the brink, which abruptly changed his life.
In May, 1947. the American city of Atlantic City held the International Conference on communication. The head of the Soviet delegation was appointed a. D. Fortushenko. I must say the conference was given great importance, because during the Second World War, the International Telecommunication Union has suffered substantial damage. It was necessary to determine its composition, . function and structure, . strengthen and expand its influence on international cooperation in the management of all types of telecommunications, . development and the most effective use of technology,
. In addition, it was necessary to establish conditions for the application of the Conventions and regulations, relationship with the UN and other international organizations, as well as solve a host of other issues. Of particular importance to the Soviet government gave the allocation of radio spectrum and recording the assigned radio frequencies.
With all this the Soviet delegation coped brilliantly. Virtually all of the tasks had fundamental importance for the Soviet Union, were executed. So followed a few days after returning home arrest Alexander D. was a complete surprise to all. He was still a surprise because it was hard to imagine a person more devoted to Soviet power, the Soviet state, a man whose whole life was geared to serving the cause.
. Alexander D. summoned the Minister of State Control of the USSR A
. Z. Mehlis. The main question that interested him - what documents he took with him to the conference Fortushenko and has not been among them secret? It is clear that this was a pure lie. All documents that went abroad Fortushenko, including lists of radio frequency, which consolidate over the Soviet radio was supposed to make the delegation have been agreed by the relevant bodies, and what he reported Mehlis. However, this does not convince officials. A few days later Alexander D. was arrested.
. He was severely beaten and tortured for several days without sleep, trying to get recognition in that which never was.
. After the first interrogation, he was transferred to Lefortovo - the worst Moscow jail
. It was believed that the very fact that here at the conclusion of the investigation - had a death sentence. One of the most severe tests, which accounted for inmates of the prison and are frightened by the guards, was cooler. Alexander D. and passed through this. Yet not signed any paper defamed him. Perhaps this saved him from execution, but, nevertheless, is not spared from the sentence - 25 years in the camps.
And then there was a transit prison camp, in the interest again, the Lubyanka, and again the same camp in the interest. And endlessly painful thoughts about, . that could cause such a fracture in his merciless fate, . how could, . his, . ever, and nothing unclean nor his honor, . nor honor state, . declared enemy of the people, . What will happen to his family and friends? A Trace - haunting idea, . that 25 years - is virtually the entire rest of your life or, . contrary, . nezhizn,
. Persistent doubts, hope for a miracle, faith in justice, in what could still change for the better. And consequently, it is necessary to survive, to preserve the ability to think and work.
Since then, he did not allow himself to relax. Remembered sections of textbooks on radio engineering and television, lectured an imaginary audience, he wrote with his finger on the table formula. In trying to recall details of his life.
Fortunately, he did not lose memory, the ability to think logically. This was especially important, as he sat in solitary confinement, which totaled more than two years. Perhaps people are physically healthier, stronger, harder to endure solitary confinement, as well as the need for communication - one of the natural properties of human. Alexander D. from 9 to 12 years due to illness of the knee joint was bedridden and so most of the time remained alone with his thoughts. Even then he had acquired the ability to work alone, I realized that the lack of physical strength can compensate for only the intellect. Apparently, all this, combined with the tenacity, determination, innate intelligence, curiosity, activity of nature, has helped him to survive and become what he became.
Alexander D. He was released in March 1954. after the death of Stalin and Beria revelations. The decision of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR, held on 3 February this year, it was written that all the charges were fabricated, and A. D. Fortushenko for their failure rehabilitated.
Many people were maimed by those terrible years. Many wroth. Many have not been able to find itself. But, fortunately, there are other examples. Proof of Life A. D. Fortushenko.
Not much time it took Alexander Dmitrievich out to log back into operation. Very soon he assumed his duties as Chief of Technical Department of the Ministry of Communications of the USSR, and later a member of the collegium of the Ministry of. But the work in the office enough to attract. He was attracted to science. The only place where he could fully exercise their knowledge, experience and talent of an organizer, was, as he believed the State Scientific-Research Institute of Radio.
Ability to properly assess their potential - a rare phenomenon. But he had this gift. In addition, Alexander D. never afraid of nothing. He had a scope, the ability to see the future, directness, not only in words but in deeds. Therefore, without false modesty, and without much emotion, he asked for this institution. He believed that becoming a leader, will be able to do much for the industry, and for the country. And so it happened.
. As already stated, under his leadership NIIR quickly gained strength and became a leading institution in the field of radio and television.
. Within the walls of the institute conducted basic research, designed apparatus for radio-relay, tropospheric and satellite communications, preparing highly qualified
. Postgraduate Institute brought a galaxy of brilliant scientists. In the sixties, the history includes unique experiments in the field of space communications ( "space bridge" Moscow - Vladivostok), . Experiments on the transfer through the space programs of color television, . deployment of the largest network of space broadcasting,
. During these years, staff of the Institute has developed equipment, which was equipped with a series of space stations.
According to staff, the life of the institute beat then the key. The manager's office was like, . more, . on the General Staff, . than academic study, . especially during, . when preparations were underway for the 50 anniversary of the October Revolution and the Institute was to perform work on manufacturing equipment, . Mounting antennas, . adjustment and adjustment of equipment,
. As he later recalled Alexander D., in large map of the flags were identified objects from this "space" operations. Ground stations were constructed in Vladivostok and Surgut, Chita and Frunze, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, and Ulan-Ude, Magadan, Tiksi - all in twenty cities. And almost every one of them went designers, developers, installers, assemblers, in order to bring everything in place "before the mind.
For implementing these and other works A. D. At the same time he defended his doctoral dissertation.
This was probably the most brilliant period in the history of the Institute. And, of course, first he was connected with the personality of Alexander D., not only as head of the institute, a generator of ideas, but also as a person.
. Working with people saying that it was very accessible, very responsive and intelligent person
. To him it was possible to come "complain to the vest, get practical advice and assistance in difficult times, just to talk with wise and good man. He never did anyone any revenge. And even left the institute in person, through the fault which had spent so many years in prisons and camps. Moreover, he never showed that he knows about. When I asked Alexander D., as it could be - he said only that the life she will understand each and everything in its place.
March 25, 1989, Mr.. Alexander D. Fortushenko not become. But alive, his institute alive the memory of him. Maybe someday his brainchild - NIIR call his name.