JACOBI Boris Semenovich( physicist)
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Biography JACOBI Boris Semenovich
B. S. Jacobi - an outstanding physicist, pioneer of electrical engineering. A native of Germany, Boris Semenovich fully able to realize their talents in Russia, where he moved in 1835, Mr.. He is known not only as a researcher of the theory of electromagnetism, electroforming, but also as the creator of a number of telegraph apparatus, each of which was a step forward in the development elektrotelegrafii.
By that time, when B. S. Jacobi began studying telegraphy, it had already gone a long way of development. But the problem of creating a reliable and quick communication has not been solved. In Europe, was widely distributed electromagnetic telegraph C. Morse, and Russia has spent a huge amount of money for the construction of the optical semaphore telegraph. Therefore, the Government has proposed to construct Jacobi "elektrotelegraficheskoe connection" between St. Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo.
. Boris Semenovich began with a critical examination of previous work on telegraphy, . including his friend Paul Lvovich Schilling, . take into account the weaknesses of the existing telegraph and came to the conclusion, . is quite realistic to create a new, . reliable, . fast and easily controlled electromagnetic apparatus.,
. The first burner apparatus Jacobi constructed in 1839, Mr.
. His feature was that instead of the multiplier used by the electromagnet, which led through a system of levers in action pencil. Recording signals carried on the porcelain board, which was moving on the carriage under the influence of the clockwork. Telegraph Jacobi for several years worked successfully in the "royal" lines: The Winter Palace - Main Headquarters - Tsarskoe Selo. However, the scientist was not satisfied with his work. Zigzag-shaped recording taken dispatches harder to decoding, it was also a convenient little device carriage with a screen.
For many years, Jacobi continued improvement of his invention. In 1845, Mr.. he created a completely new design of the synchronous switch apparatus with a horizontal dial, electromagnetic actuator and a direct keyboard. This unit has practical application in Russia, Europe and became the basis for many other synchronous telegraph. And in 1850, Mr.. Jacobi invented the world's first teleprinter, who works on the principle of simultaneous motion. This invention was one of the greatest achievements of Electrical mid XIX century.
In a direct-printing machine inventor has used all the basic ideas successfully implemented them in the needle telegraph. This applies primarily to the principle of phase and synchronicity, which was later the basis for the telegraph D. Hughes, In. Siemens and E. Bodo. This principle has retained its importance for modern direct-printing machines.
However, the government considered the invention of the Jacobi military secrets and did not allow the scientist to publish his description. About him, even in Russia knew a few, up until the Berlin Jacobi has not shown drawings of his "old friends". This is used in. Siemens, a motion in the construction of the device Jacobi some changes, and together with the mechanic and. Halske organized the mass production of such handsets. It was the beginning of the world-renowned electrical engineering company Siemens and Halske ". A Jacobi in 1951. wrote that "the same system, which I first introduced, adopted at the present time in America and most countries in Europe."
Last Work B. S. Jacobi field EQUIPMENT refers to 1854, when he created a new telegraph for communications in large steamships between the skipper's cabin and engine room. But Apparatus not limited to activities in the field of telegraphy Jacobi. He made an outstanding contribution to the construction of the lines of the electromagnetic telegraph and the question of the stability and reliability of the wiring. Another wonderful invention Jacobi - a prototype of the modern underground cable. Later it was used when laying the cable from Europe to America.