Woolf, Virginia( English writer, critic, literary critic, translator, one of the founding publishers 'Hogarth Press')
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Biography Woolf, Virginia
Woolf, Virginia (nee Virginia Edelin Stephens) (1882-1941) - British novelist, critic, literary critic, translator, one of the founding publishers 'Hogarth Press'. First in the world literature 20 in. decided to draw attention to the originality of the social experience of women, helping them to become 'visible' in society and realize the possibility of psychological frankness hitherto formerly forbidden to them.
Born January 25, 1882 in London, in the fashionable district of the British aristocracy - Kensington. His father, Leslie Stephens, was a popular, successful writer and critic, philosopher and historian of literature, and his mother, - Lady Julia Duckworth - fashionable lady friend Hariett Meriam, daughter of William Thackeray. Home Steffensen was a famous literary - artistic artistic salon in London. It talked about the Impressionists, . the theory of American psychologist William Joyce, . with a light hand that became popularized the concept of 'stream of consciousness'; read all the works of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, . it there were writers David Herbert Lawrence, . Henry James,
. Four children Stephens raised in an environment where all 'had free access to a large library, where any books from anyone not hide'.
All this prosperity collapsed when Virdzhnii was 13 years. First she suffered attempted rape by her cousins, stayed in the house. This marked the beginning of dislike to men and to the physical side of relationships with them throughout the life of Virginia. Shortly thereafter, of pneumonia, her mother suddenly died. Nervous, impressionable girl out of desperation tried to commit suicide. It saved, but the deep, prolonged depression, have since become part of her life. She suffered from a sense of insecurity: the brothers, which was held childhood, came to Cambridge University, she also stayed at home with my sister.
When he died in 1904 her father, Virginia and sister Vanessa and brother decided to sell the house and move out of Kensington in the quarter, where lived bohemian London - Bloomsbury. New house she wanted to make a new beginning - for example the mother of Virginia has established a sort of literary salon. Since 1905, she wrote regularly for 'literary supplement' to the newspaper 'The Times', and her essays were popular. New death - her brother Tobias in 1906 - became the new terrible blow and plunged it into a regular frustration.
After the 1907 Virginia's sister had married and left home in Bloomsbury, Virginia with the second brother, Adrien again changed the apartment. In the new location, at Fitzroy Square, she became the soul of the so-called 'blumsberiyskoy group'. Formed as a collective freely united poets (TS Eliot), . literary critics (Roger Fry), . writers (Edward M. Forster), . philosophers (Bertrand Russell), . as well as economists and art-minded (most of them were homosexual), . This group emerged from the circle of acquaintances, . the brothers Virdzhnii acquired during his studies at Cambridge,
. Influenced by the ideas of the philosopher GE Moore, . they proceeded from the, . that the ideals of friendship, . love and mutual attraction are paramount and that they can flourish only in the case, . when sincerity and freedom prevail over the sham and affectedness,
. Warning people to each other was magnified by the group as the ultimate goal, the theme was words of the writer E. Forster 'Nothing can replace communication'.
In 1912, the members 'Bloomberg group' has graduated from Cambridge critic Leonard Woolf. In the same year - honestly saying that her disgusting bodily intimacy with a man - Virginia to marry him. Marriage bonds uniting the Virginia and Leonard for 29 years, became a model of mutual respect and emotional support.
Leonard actively supported in his wife craving for literary work. Thanks to him, she took as a writer. Together with her husband, Virginia has established a publishing house 'Hogarth Press', was engaged in translation, published in Britain and the Russian classics: Aksakov, Leo Tolstoy, Ivan Turgenev.
While working on his first novel, "Journey", Woolf suffered another serious nervous breakdown that has led her in 1915 to a new attempt suicide. However, she recovered, and in 1919 issued a written. The success of "Travels" became the basis for the continuation of literary activity: in the same year his novel V. Woolf "Night and Day", followed "Jacob's Room" (1922) and "Mrs. Delouey" (1925). Y 'ordinary' women became milestones of life at this time of love affairs and having children in Virginia in such landmarks turned her book. She wrote a lot, . indefatigably, . besides releasing novels in 1925-1940 several books on literary criticism, . including literary criticism: the essay "ordinary reader", . "Regular readers: Part Two" and "Death of a moth" (published after her death, . 1942),
. The literary heritage of Virginia also includes dozens of essays, . Thousands of letters, . five thousand pages of diaries and, . sure, . stories: V. Woolf was the creator of a new manner of writing - where the plot may be cut short, . where instead of the usual world of the present 'cryptogram soul', . where the author's message is moved more than feelings, and is similar to watercolor sketches,
. Innovative ways of presenting transient worldly things, . show the inner world of heroes, . describing the set of ways of refraction of consciousness, . works of V. Woolf entered the golden fund of literary modernism and accepted with enthusiasm by many contemporaries,
. Recognition and fame, but no joy, Virginia, and only the support of her husband and sister forced her to continue to engage the writer's trade.
It has always been more emotionally attached to women: to her sister Vanessa (favorite 'almost to a mental incest'), girlfriends (M. Wang, V. Dickinson, E. Smith). Having fallen in love in 1922 in Victoria (Vitu) Sekvill West Virginia has been involved in a relationship which lasted almost 20 years. In 1928 V. Woolf mapped his girlfriend in the novel "Orlando" - phantasmagoric biography, where the ephemeral life of the hero, becoming a man, the woman continued for three centuries. Son of Victoria called this work "the most charming love letter in the history of literature '. Emotionally candid letters and works of V. Woolf give grounds to conclude that gay writer - the investigation of the tragedy experienced in childhood, the fear that she had over men and their society. She falls in love women - but abhorred all forms of intimacy, including them, could not bear hugs, handshakes did not allow even. Romany women V. Woolf experienced in the imagination, so the inclusion of V. Woolf in terms of 'the most famous lesbians in world history' (as its name is often mentioned in references in this context) is wrong.
Innovative product B. Wolf presented an a contemporary writer, the way of protest against patriarchal. Virginia's famous essay "Own Room" (1929), as well as the novel "Three Guineas" (1938) is still considered the fundamental works of feminist literature. Giving an answer to the question - 'What would, . say, . was, . If Shakespeare had no less gifted, . than he, . sister? " - V. Woolf invented a mini-novel ( "Own Room") - the story of, . what would happen, . If Shakespeare was a woman, . as if this woman lived and tragically ended its life - not being able to be assessed, . left insulted and oppressed by men,
. From the pages of the novel V. Woolf called his contemporaries are not satisfied with 'their corner in the common room' (as millions of women of the past), . but 'their render habitable rooms, . developing the habit of freely and openly express thoughts, . recognizing, . Finally, . fact, . that supports - no, . we are alone: ',
. Suffering from the fact that it did not take place as a mother, Virginia passionately tied to children - especially to the many nephews
. A favorite of them was Julian - full of promise, poet. And she and her husband Leonard treated him like a son. The death of Julian in Spain in 1938 plunged the family into a new Vulfov sea of despair. The writer once tried to immerse oneself in work, time and again arguing the intrinsic value of women's lives as such.
In the designs of V. Woolf was a new, ambitious novel, "Between the Acts", which she started writing already in a state of severe depression, tormented by hallucinations, night vision, nightmares. Doctors insisted on treatment in a psychiatric hospital: a night bombing of London in early 1941, during which the house was destroyed by the writer, burned the library, almost died beloved husband - completely upset her nervous system. Virginia and Leonard Woolf moved to the city Rodmell in Sussex. Being in a deep depression from all war-related and being mentally exhausted, Virginia has become home to complain that all the time 'hearing the voices of birds singing in the olive Ancient Greece'. Unwilling, . to the rest of his life husband spent in care, . related to its madness, . March 28, 1941, she sang it, . that more than once described in his works, and that not once tried to put into practice - committed suicide, . drowned in the river DSB,
The name of Virginia Woolf became known in Russia, together with the discovered during the political 'thaw' the beginning of the 1960's interest in modernism in literature. Interest in her creative work especially perked up after the establishment of American playwright Edward Albee play called "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?" (1966), which was withdrawn on the same film. Ecstatic and deeply unhappy heroine - kinoanalog V. Woolf - played in it a young E. Taylor. And play, . and the film had a very distant relation to the real biography of the writer, . but were filled with the sharpest drama and psychological, . reaching the emotional exhibitionism, . so characteristic of the works of novelist and esseistki V. Woolf, . for ending a quarter century before the creation of the play,
. In 2002 the world released a new movie screen, telling about the strange and tragic life of V. Woolf - The Hours, "which played the role of writer N. Kidman.