Charles Wheatstone( physicist)
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Biography Charles Wheatstone
Charles Wheatstone was famous for his research and inventions in various fields of physics, especially in telecommunications. Like many scientists of the XIX century, it was universal.
Charles was born in February 1802. at Gloucester (South England) in the family music as a master. After leaving school he engaged in the manufacture of musical instruments. After moving to London, opened his own studio, and even invented in 1829. concertina - a push-button pneumatic musical instrument.
But carried away by mathematics and physics, and soon published his first article - "New research on the sound". Since 1834. Charles devoted himself entirely scientific work. Undertook a study of electrical discharge of batteries, it determines the duration of the spark discharge and the rate of the discharge current.
Continuing research in the field of acoustics, it also marked the beginning of Spectroscopy. In 1838, Mr.. scientist invents a mirror stereoscope, and in 1839 - hronoskop to measure the length of short time intervals. Since 1836, Mr.. Wheatstone - a member of the Royal Society.
By 1840, Mr.. the invention elektrohronometricheskih hours, which soon found a wide application.
In electrical engineering his name immortalized invention of the bridge for measuring electrical resistance of conductors (in 1843). This bridge - one of the earliest of electrical devices - called the "Wheatstone Bridge" is described in textbooks around the world. His invention became the basis for a new direction in engineering - a bridge measuring circuits.
Especially significant contribution Wheatstone in Telecommunications. In 1837, Mr.. He along with William Cook, who brought to England a copy of the telegraph Schilling, began work on its improvement. Applying the principle of open Schilling electromagnetic telegraph, they are in the 1837-1838 years. patented a new apparatus, where the magnetic needle under the influence of current pulses directly pointed to the desired letter or number. There is no need in translated code.
Wheatstone Telegraph - Cook became widespread in the British railways. The world's first operating telegraph line 21 km long was constructed in July 1839
In 1840, Mr.. these same scientists had designed more perfect single-needle machine with a clockwork mechanism.
. With the name of Winston-range solution to the problem related to wire transfer through the organization on the road perepriemnyh stations, so-called telegraphic broadcasts.
. When the line did a weakened signal, the current passing through a sensitive relays, to influence the further electromagnet, which closes the circuit was at the station, local battery
. "Fresh" current from the battery went to electromagnetic transceiver device, and then again on the line. At the break of a linear current income to terminate the local battery. Thus translational device repeated opening and closing phase of the current, by pressing a key on the transmitting station. Scheme of the relay with an auxiliary battery for a long time called Wheatstone transmitter.
In England, Wheatstone Telegraph - Cook applied for half a century. Queen Victoria for its development and implementation of both conferred a knighthood.
In 1841, Mr.. Wheatstone proposed submarine telegraph cable to connect England and France, he drafted a line and described the construction of submarine cable, it means laying and retrieval in case of damage. In 1845, Mr.. project was exhibited for public viewing at the Versailles station in Paris. Finally, on the initiative of a scientist in 1850. started laying marine telegraph cables at the bottom of the strait between the cities of Dover and Calais, successfully concluded in 1851-m.
. By the end of the fifties (1858), a tireless Wheatstone invented the automatic telegraph, using tape, on which holes are located appropriately, marked dots and dashes of Morse code
. At such a device could transmit up to 500 letters per minute, t. e. five to six times more than manual work through the key.
These transmitters are used in the first half of XX century. According to the memoirs of Marshal Forces Communications and. T. Peresypkina, they, along with the apparatus Bodo and start-stop ST-35 was equipped with the Red Army during the Great Patriotic War.
. The principle of differential Wheatstone bridge was used for the formation of artificial chains on the telegraph stations in the duplex, and dipleksnoy kvadrupleksnoy transfer
. Charles Wheatstone died Oct. 19, 1875, Mr.. Paris.