Vasiliy Oshchepkov( The founder of the national judo and one of the founders of the combat sambo)
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Biography Vasiliy Oshchepkov
Oshchepkov, Vasiliy (1892-1937), founder of the national judo and one of the founders of the combat sambo. He was born in late December 1892 (exact date of birth is unknown) in the village. Alexander's office on Sakhalin. The illegitimate son of katorzhanki M. Oshchepkova. After the defeat of Russia in the Russian-Japanese war of 1905 South Sakhalin was detached from Russia, and the young Oshchepkov unwittingly became a subject of Land of the Rising Sun.
Oshchepkova mother died when her son turned 11 years old. The fate of the boy attended Archbishop Japanese father, Nikolai, a man of broad views, who has managed to create Japan's Orthodox spiritual mission. In one of the schools of this mission, the seminary in g.Kioto, got fourteen orphan Vasya Oshchepkov. Among the subjects studied in the seminary, was Judo. Once a year in the seminary was held to select the best students to study at the famous Kodokan Judo Institute, headed by the founder of judo Jigoro Kano. October 29, 1911 Oshchepkov was adopted in this institution, as preserved in the archives of the Kodokan, the corresponding entry. Basil left the seminary in Kyoto and moved to Tokyo, where the Kodokan Institute. June 15, 1913 Oshchepkov received his first master's degree - sedan (first dan) - and belted his jacket with black belt. Soon he passed his exams for a second dan. Oshchepkov became the first Russian and the fourth foreigner, earned masters degree in Kodokan Judo. Returning to Russia in 1914, Oshchepkov worked as a military translator at the headquarters of the Amur Military District in Vladivostok. At the same time under the auspices of the Vladivostok society 'Sport' Oshchepkov organized Russia's first amateur circle for the Study of Judo. Society existed until 1920.
In 1918, at the beginning of the Japanese occupation of the Far East (1918-1925), Oshchepkov was drafted into the army of Kolchak and seconded to the Office of the Japanese military field communications. Around the same time began his collaboration with the Bolshevik underground. Working on the Intelligence of the Red Army in 1921 and sell Soviet films in Manchuria, where never missed an opportunity to get acquainted with the Chinese system of self-defense.
After the Japanese occupation of the Far East Oshchepkov went on Sakhalin Island, and then in Tokyo, where the film business conducted under the guise of intelligence activities. Supplied by it is mainly evaluated in the USSR as 'valuable' and 'very valuable'. However, the performance characteristics of the Intelligence of his views have been evaluated as 'smenovehovskie', and in 1926 Oshchepkov was recalled to the Soviet Union.
In 1928, the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR Oshchepkov was appointed a military translator in one of the departments of Staff of the Siberian military district and moved to Novosibirsk. He taught judo in school Novosibirsk police and staff of the Siberian Military District.
Soon Oshchepkova transferred to Moscow, the Office of combat training of the Red Army. At the end of 1929 when the Office of the prince of the Moscow garrison were organized courses to train trainers of military close combat. Leader courses and author of training programs was appointed Oshchepkov. In the early 1930's for the civilian population was established by physical exercise, called 'Ready for Labor and Defense'. As a rule of TRP second stage provided for self-defense techniques for men and women. To develop this rule was mandated by the TRP Oshchepkova.
In 1929 Oshchepkov became a teacher of the State Central Institute of Physical Culture. Jobs at the Institute of Physical Education gave Oshchepkova unique insight into the systems of control of the USSR, whose representatives were trained in his department. He analyzed the international sports martial arts, Chinese wushu and a number of national kinds of wrestling with the terms of their applicability in armed clashes. On the basis of judo Oshchepkov began to create a better application struggle, subsequently named Sambo.
Among his pupils were VG Kuzovlev, VV Sidorov, NM Galkovsky, I. Vasiliev, R. A. Shkolnikov, A. Harlampiev and many other masters. In 1932 the Institute of Physical Culture Oshchepkov organized the first open competition in judo. In 1935 held the primacy of the Institute of Physical Education and the first championship in Moscow. At the same time were organized by the Moscow and All-Union section 'freestyle wrestling judo', which became chairman Oshchepkov.
In 1937 judo as a system, coming from the capitalist Japan, was excluded from the curricula of institutes and colleges physical. September 29, 1937 Lubyanka issued a decree: 'Oshchepkov Vasiliy sufficiently detected in that, while living in the Soviet Union, is engaged in espionage in favor of Japan ... Citizen Oshchepkova draw as a defendant under Article. 58 n. 6. The measure of restraint methods of evading investigation and trial to elect detention '. On the night of the first to second п+п¦я-я¦п¦я-я¦ 1937 Oshchepkov was arrested on charges of spying for Japan, and ten days later died in the chamber Butyrskaya.