Euwe Max( chess-player)
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Biography Euwe Max
Euwe, MAX (Euwe, Max) (1901-1981). Fifth World Champion (1935-1937). Born May 20, 1901 in the family of a teacher in Vatergrafsmere (Netherlands). I got acquainted with chess at age 4, participates in competitions with 10 years. First time played in the championship of the Netherlands (1919) and shared the 2-3 places. Then brought in a draw match with the champion of the country M. Marchand. The following year at an international tournament in Amsterdam, won 4 th prize. In 1921 became champion of the country. Playing the match with his teacher, Grandmaster G. MarцЁczy - 6:6 (+2-2 = 8). In 1923-1924 the first victory in an international tournament in Hastings. In 1926 defended his thesis and received a doctorate. Successfully combines teaching with a game in competitions. In 1926-1927 played a match of 10 parties with Alekhine - 4,5:5,5 (+2-3 = 5). In 1928 in The Hague wins the FIDE championship Amateurs. In the same year, taking part in a major international tournament in Kissingen, where shares 3-4 places with A. Rubinstein. At the international tournament in Hastings (1930-1931) ranks first, ahead of Capablanca. In 1931 in Amsterdam, playing a match of 10 parties with Capablanca - +0-2 = 8. In 1932 at the Swiss Open Championship with 7 grandmasters shares 2-3 places with S. Floro, second only Alekhin.
In 1934 Alekhine is a match for the title of world champion. He accepts the challenge. Participates in major international tournament in Zurich, once again shares 2-3 places with S. Flora after Alexander Alekhine.
At the turn of 1934-1935 for the third time successfully played in Hastings - 1-3 places with Flora and Dzh.Tomasom, ahead of Capablanca.
Match Alekhine - Euwe (Netherlands, 1935) held in various cities - Amsterdam, Groningen, Rotterdam, Utrecht, etc.. Played the majority of the 30 parties. At the start of the leadership has conquered the world champion, then Euwe able to equalize the middle of the match, but then again, the champion stepped forward. At the applicant was able to finish a point ahead of Alekhine and win - 15,5:14,5 (+9-8 = 13).
In 1936 with the rank of champion participates in three tournaments - in Zaadvoorte - 2 place in Nottingham - 3-5 and wins in Amsterdam ahead of Alekhine.
In 1937 took rematch Alekhine - Euwe. Passed in various cities of the Netherlands. After 6 parties score was equal, but then Alekhine firmly seized the leadership and by 25 had already won the party needed to win points. Score Match - 15,5:9,5 (+10-4 = 11).
In the AVRO tournament (1938) Euwe made medium, dividing 4.6 seats (with eight participants). In 1940, played a match with P. Keres - 6,5:7,5 (+5-6 = 3) and won the tournament in Budapest. In 1941, in Carlsbad won the match E. Bogolyubov - 6,5:3,5 (+5-2 = 3). When the war ended in 1946, winning in three international tournaments - London, Maastricht, Zaandam. In the largest international tournament of the first postwar years (Groningen, 1946) occupies the second place, half a point behind the winner Botvinnik.
In the match-tournament for the World Championship 1948 (The Hague - London), made to fail, becoming the latest. In 1956, wins the match by J. Donner, recently became the champion of the Netherlands.
In 50-60 years, teaches at the University of Tilburg and the Higher School of Economics in Rotterdam.
In 1970, was unanimously elected president of FIDE. During his presidency (1970-1978) contributed significantly to the credibility of FIDE, . visiting more than one hundred countries, . contributed to the increase in the number of its members, . personally involved in organizing and holding the world championship match Spassky - Fischer (1972) and Karpov - Korchnoi (1978),
. Died Nov. 26, 1981 in Amsterdam.
Euwe was a born teacher, and his books were improved by many generations of chess players around the world. 'Course chess lectures, - said Alexander Karpov, - one of the first books where I got an idea of how the development of chess thought, the contribution to the art of his first chess classics'.