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Charles Greeley Abbot

( The American astrophysicist)

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Biography Charles Greeley Abbot
photo Charles Greeley Abbot
Abbot, Charles Greeley (Abbot, Charles Greeley) (1872-1973), American astrophysicist. Born May 31, 1872 in Wilton (pc. New Hampshire, USA). In 1894 he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Since 1895 staff, and in 1907-1944 director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in 1928-1944 secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1910 he was awarded the Medal. G. Draper of the National Academy of Sciences. Since 1915 member of the National Academy of.

Abbot's work is devoted to measuring radiation from the sun and stars, in particular the distribution of energy in the solar spectrum, the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere, its dependence on the height. Abbot significantly improved instrumentation necessary for this: pyrheliometers measuring the flow of direct solar radiation, and Pyranometers measuring the total (from all of the daytime sky) and diffuse solar radiation in the air. With their help, to accurately determine the solar constant - the average power of solar radiation reaching the upper limit of the earth's atmosphere (modern meaning - 1369 watts into 1 square. m). We also define the bolometric luminosity of many bright stars.

Abbott initiated the creation of high astronomical stations in California, Chile, Egypt, for the systematic measurement of the solar constant. His own long-term observations in 1953 enabled him to establish the relation between changes in solar radiation and weather on Earth, which improved the methodology ultralong-range weather forecasting (for 50 or more years ahead).

Abbott has invented many devices, including personal services, for the use of thermal energy, some of them reached 15% efficiency. Abbott died in Riverdale (pc. Maryland, USA) 17 December 1973.


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