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Ayer, Alfred Jules

( English philosopher, the representative of logical empiricism)

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Biography Ayer, Alfred Jules
Ayer, Alfred Jules (Ayer, Alfred Jules) (1910-1989), English philosopher, the representative of logical empiricism (the British version of logical positivism). Born in London on October 29, 1910. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church College, Oxford University. Graduated in 1932, Ayer went to Vienna, where he met with a new form pozitivitizma, which has developed a so-called. 'Vienna Circle'. In 1933 he returned to Oxford and began his teaching career as a lecturer at Christ Church College. Later Iyer has held various positions at Oxford and London universities. In 1952 he was elected a member of the British Academy in 1959 received the title of Distinguished Professor, and in 1970 was elevated to the dignity of knighthood. Ayer died in London on June 27, 1989

. 'Vienna Circle' in the early 1930's is an association of philosophers, . scientists and mathematicians (among its members were Moritz Schlick, . Rudolf Carnap, . Kurt Godel and others), . who believed, . that only 'scientific worldview' can serve as a starting point of modern philosophy,
. The central place in it served 'principle of verification'. Version, . proposed in the paper "Language, . Truth and Logic "(Language, . Truth and Logic, . 1936, second edition 1946), . Iyer has brought fame, . verification principle states, . the proposal meaningfully, . only if it is either analytic (ie,
. its meaning is sufficient to establish its truth or falsity), or some conceivable experience 'may be relevant to the determination of its truth or falsity' (ie. proposal is an empirical hypothesis). According to Ayer, this principle implied that the proposals metaphysics, theology, aesthetics and ethics is literally meaningless, and therefore can not be neither true nor false. Metaphysical allegations arise as a result of logical and linguistic errors. At the same time, ethical and aesthetic judgments, as well as certain judgments of a religious nature may be 'emotional' laden expressions of expressing their inner world of people, ie. the subject of psychology. According to Ayer, in exile 'metaphysical' judgments is fine: 'dumb arrogance has no place in philosophy'. However, to formulate the principle of verification in such a way, . to the category of senseless missed some apparently meaningful scientific hypothesis, . was not easy, . and after some time (mid 1950), logical positivism has lost its former popularity, . but his methods have been adopted by analytical philosophy,


. Among more recent works Ayer - "Foundations of empirical knowledge" (The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge, . 1940), "The Problem of Knowledge" (The Problem of Knowledge, . 1956), "The concept of personality and Other Essays" (The Concept of a Person and Other Essays, . 1963), "The Origin of pragmatism" (The Origins of Pragmatism, . 1968), "Russell and Moore: the legacy of analytic philosophy" (Russell and Moore: The Analytical Heritage, . 1971), "The main questions of philosophy" (The Central Questions of Philosophy, . 1973), "Philosophy in the 20 century" (Philosophy in the Twentieth Century, . 1983), "Freedom and morality" (Freedom and Morality and Other Essays, . 1984), "Wittgenstein" (Wittgenstein, . 1985),
. These books, like all works of Ayer, differ very clear and elegant language, and a clear analysis of specific issues of interest even for those philosophers who do not accept the ideas of 'verification approach'. In 1977 and 1984 were published in two volumes of autobiography, Ayer: "Part of my life" (Part of My Life) and "The second half of life" (More of My Life).


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Ayer, Alfred Jules, photo, biography Ayer, Alfred Jules  English philosopher, the representative of logical empiricism, photo, biography
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