PEDERSEN Charles( Chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1987)
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Biography PEDERSEN Charles
PEDERSEN, CHARLES (Pedersen, Charles J.) (1904-1989) (USA). Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1987 (jointly with D. Kramov and J.-M. Len).
Born in Pusan (Korea), October 3, 1904. Father Brides Pedersen, a Norwegian marine engineer, a young man settled in the Far East. He left the sea and it became a mechanical engineer at the mine, in the territory of modern North Korea.
Mother Takino Yasui, a Japanese girl, was engaged in trade in Korea, when met with his father.
Mastered the English language as a child. At the age of 8 he was sent to Japan to start school in a nunnery in Nagasaki, and in 10 years, he began studying at the Catholic College of St. Joseph. There Pedersen received his secondary education, and listened to the first year chemistry.
Entered the University of Dayton in Ohio (USA), where at that time his family settled. After receiving a bachelor's degree in engineering chemistry, he went to Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he received a master's degree in organic chemistry.
In 1927 he got a job in Comana 'DuPont' in Wilmington, Del.. In the scientific laboratory of the company he left to work. Studied precipitators soluble copper, and he managed to find first-quality metal inactivator for petroleum. As a result, he became interested in the influence of various ligands on the catalytic properties of copper, and he worked in this field for several years. Later studied oxidative cleavage of petroleum products and rubber. In the late 1940's - early 1950's Pedersen interested photochemistry of some new substances found initiators of polymerization and created several new polymers.
In 1960 he returned to research in the field of coordination chemistry, and began to study the effects of bi-and polydentate digandov on the catalytic properties of vanadilnoy. In one experiment, he obtained crystals (which have been dibenzo-18-crown-6), . named crown ether (crown - the crown of English) for feature structures - a blank inside and a movable ring of carbon atoms, . connected through a bridge oxygen atoms,
. By varying the size of the cycle, he found that crown ethers are able to selectively bind certain cations, placing them in the center of its 'crown'.
Its discovery has been extended Frenchman Jean-Marie Lehn, and American Donald Kramov. Result of parallel efforts of three researchers was the synthesis of molecules that can selectively react with other molecules, just like enzymes are associated with other natural molecules.
Crown ethers and cryptand seen first as a model system, capable of selective binding. It turned out that they can serve as models of biological and transport systems. Then uncover the role of such compounds in modeling enzymes. Crown ethers were the first synthetic analogs of natural substances, carrying the alkali metal ions across the cell membrane. These vectors, called ionophore, operate on the same principle as crown ethers, although they have a more complicated structure. Natural vectors of cations belong to the so-called switchable ionophore. After going inside the cell, they are under the influence of certain influences thrown cation and quickly returned for the following. Speed of shuttle operations may reach several thousand per second, and often they move against the concentration gradient.
Crown and cryptand as a substance that selectively bind certain ions are promising for medicine as a treatment for metallodefitsitnyh and metalloizbytochnyh states.
This area of research has expanded rapidly evolved into what Len later named by the term 'supramolecular chemistry'. Supramolecular chemistry studies the comprehensive aspects of molecular interactions 'guest' molecule with a 'master'. What is supramolecular chemistry? Len has identified it as the chemistry of intermolecular bonds that studies the association of two or more chemical species, as well as the structure of such associations. It lies outside the classical chemistry that studies the structure, properties and transformations of individual molecules. If the latter is the case, . mainly, . with reactions, . in which there are gaps and the formation of valence bonds, . is an object of study of supramolecular chemistry are almost exclusively non-valent interactions: hydrogen bond, . electrostatic interactions, . hydrophobic forces, . structure 'no connection',
. As is known, the energy of non-valent interactions of 1-2 orders of magnitude below the energy of valence bonds, however, if many of them, they lead to the formation of strong, yet flexible to change its structure associates. This combination of strength and capacity for rapid and reversible changes - a characteristic property of all biological molecular structures: nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes, vectors of particles.
Within a short period of supramolecular chemistry has developed into a vast field of knowledge, which includes several areas. The most important direction of research the last decade was the synthesis of compounds capable of forming complexes of the type 'guest - host' with organic molecules. It is necessary for the separation and purification of organic substances, their activation, to create next-generation drugs and the myriad of other scientific and applied problems.
In 1987 work Pedresena was awarded the Nobel Prize, together with D. Kramov and J.-M.Lenom 'for the development and application of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity'.
Pedersen retired in 1969. Retired engaged in fishing, gardening, studying bird life and poetry.
In 1947 he married Susan Olt (Susan Ault) and settled in the town of Salem, New Jersey, where he lived until the end of life.
Pedersen died on October 26, 1989 in g.Saleme, New Jersey.