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FISCHER, Ernst Otto

( Chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1973)

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Biography FISCHER, Ernst Otto
Fischer, Ernst Otto (Fischer, Ernst Otto) (p. 1918) (FRG). Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1973 (jointly with D. Wilkinson).

He was born in Solna, a suburb of Munich, the youngest of three children of Carl Tobias Fischer, Professor of Physics Institute, Technical University of Munich, and Valentina Fischer. He was educated first at a local school, and then in the 'Gymnasium Teresa' and technical school in Munich.

After training in 1937 was called up for two years in the army, and after the Second World War he served in Poland, France and the USSR. Within six months he was in U.S. custody, was released in 1945.

When in 1946 the Munich Technical University was reopened, Fischer began research with Professor Walter Heber, Otto, a pioneer in the study metallokarbonilov (metal complexes with molecules of CO). In 1952 in Munich, Fischer was awarded a doctorate, and he stayed here to work as an assistant researcher

. In 1951, British chemist T.Dzh.Kili (TJKealy) and PL Boseong (PLPauson), and somewhat later S. Miller (SAMiller) and co-workers had received the substance, called the Nobel Prize in 1965, RB Woodward (Nobel Laureate, 1965) ferrocene
. This unusual Organoelement Compounds, which represents a structure consisting of two five-membered cyclopentadienyl rings connected with one atom of iron.

Fischer, in his dissertation ferrocene subjected to X-ray analysis.

As D. Wilkinson, he determined in 1952 that two tsiklopentadienovyh rings are parallel, layers, ie. in the form of a sandwich with an iron atom located between. As a result, the central metal atom is associated with each of the five carbon atoms of the upper and lower ring. Fischer described the ferrocene as a 'completely new type of covalent complex'.

This explained the high stability of the molecule, and the efforts of Fischer and Wilkinson led to the discovery of a new class of compounds.

In 1954, Fischer became an assistant professor at the Technical University of Munich, after three years - Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry at the Technical University of Munich. At the same time lecturing (as a visiting professor) at the universities of Jena and Marburg, and later the University of Wisconsin in g. Madison (USA).

Together with V. Hafner dibenzolhrom synthesized, which consisted of two parallel benzene rings connected located in the center of an atom of chromium. This means that instead of cyclopentadiene in the composition of such structures include benzene. Most chemists believe that such a molecule can not create. More Fisher researched organic derivatives of transition metals, giving special preference to metal complexes with arenes (aromatic hydrocarbons).

In 1964 Fisher became the director of the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry at the Technical University of Munich, where he created the necessary conditions for X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies of molecular structure. His laboratory soon took a leading position in research in organometallic chemistry

. Interested in the problems of in-depth fundamental research and the effectiveness of science, . He often appeared on these topics at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, . and, . continuing to lecture abroad, . University of Florida (1971) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1973),

In 1973, Fisher shared with Dzh.Uilkinsonom Nobel Prize 'for the innovative work done independently of each other, organometallic chemistry, the so-called sandwich compounds of'.

Work for which Wilkinson and Fischer received the Nobel Prize, has stimulated research into previously unknown, highly productive areas of inorganic, organic and theoretical chemistry

. Their research laid the foundation for the development of catalysts, . used in the production of new, . high-strength plastic, . drugs (eg, . for the treatment of Parkinson's disease) and motor fuel, . of unleaded, . creating a more effective and less toxic, . than tetraethyl, . antiknock,

This area of chemistry has generated rapidly increasing interest in organometallic compounds, especially those who have a connection, carbon - metal. Particularly interesting relationship 'sandwich' compounds important for the practice class of substances - metal carbonyls in connection with the possibility of easily replaceable cyclopentadienyl radical molecules of CO and vice versa, . which proved useful for synthetic purposes,

Have been widely studied alkyne and alkene complexes of transition metals, which led to the emergence of new classes of organometallic compounds. Now this area of chemistry is undergoing rapid changes, and the use of such organometallic compounds as catalysts has been possible to carry out such reactions, the assumption of the implementation of which previously would have caused confusion. Moreover, such processes are already in commercial use.

The results obtained by Wilkinson and Fischer were the impetus for the creation of modern organometallic chemistry of transition elements, in that they have made a significant contribution to their subsequent research.

Attentive towards colleagues and students, courteous and friendly, Fisher distinguished talent teacher. In his spare time reading history course. In between his lectures often possible to find in the famous Munich Pinakothek, says gallery, located adjacent to the university, the best place for recreation and with graduate students.

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