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HALL Robert William

( American biochemist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968)

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Biography HALL Robert William
HALL, ROBERT WILLIAM (Holley, Robert William) (1922-1993), American biochemist, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968 (jointly with Khar Gobind Koran and Marshall Nirenberg).
Born January 28, 1922 in Urbana, Illinois, the son of a schoolteacher. Studied in secondary schools in Illinois, California and Idaho. In 1938 graduated from high school in Urbana, and joined the faculty of chemistry at the University of Illinois. In 1942, received a bachelor's degree and transferred to Cornell University, to continue to study the course of Organic Chemistry. But he was able to complete their education only in 1947. After the entry of the United States into World War II, Holly worked under the guidance of Professor Vincent de wine medical college at Cornell University: on orders of military authorities, scientists have synthesized the antibiotic penicillin,
. After the war, in 1947 he defended his diploma and a Ph.D.. Also in 1947 he became a Fellow of the American Chemical Society, which enabled him to two years (1947-1948) on probation at the University of Washington in the laboratory of Professor Charles M. Stevens.

After internship, he returned to Cornell University, where he worked as an assistant professor of organic chemistry at the experimental station 'Geneva'. There he began a series of experiments on the biochemistry of nucleic acids (nucleic acids, polynucleotides, the major biologically active biopolymers, are contained in every cell of all living organisms). In 1955 the Guggenheim Foundation gave him a grant for research in the Department of Biology, California Institute of Technology.

In 1958 he moved to Ithaca, New York, worked as a chemist-researcher in the agro-chemical laboratory at the National Laboratory of Agriculture

. The main theme of his scientific research in those years was the study of ribonucleic acid (RNA) (RNA type of nucleic acids, macromolecular organic compounds, . formed nucleotides, in the cells of all living organisms, RNA is involved in the implementation of genetic information),
.

Nucleic acids were discovered in the late 19 century. And in the first half of the 20 in. Researchers have two main nucleic acid: ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (deoxyribonucleic acid, a natural high-polymer compound, . contained in the nuclei of cells of living organisms, the carrier of genetic information),
.

In 1953, scientists managed to identify a double helical structure of DNA. Was built three-dimensional model of DNA molecule. Helix of DNA consists of two chains of nucleotides (nucleotides organic compounds, . consisting of a nitrogenous base, . carbohydrate and one or more residues of phosphoric acid., . connected base pairs, are an integral part of nucleic acids),
. The sequence of bases and forms a compound genetic code of DNA.

In turn RNA also consists of nucleotides. There are three types of RNA: Reporting, ribosomal and transport. Target messenger RNA copy the genetic code from DNA in the nucleus of the cell and move the copied genetic code for protein synthesis to the ribosomes. The problem of transport RNA transport amino acids to the ribosomes, and the seizure of certain amino acids occurs in accordance with the nucleotide code of the transport of RNA.

Four years after beginning work in the agro-chemical laboratory at the National Laboratory of Agriculture, Holly became a professor of biochemistry. And in 1964 he returned to his native Cornell University, where he was appointed Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In 1965-1966 was the dean of the Faculty of Biochemistry

. In the early 1960's to Marshall W. Nirenberg to open the main triplet code (triplet code system, . consisting of three nitrogen bases, . which determines the location of amino acids from the protein molecule during its synthesis) for the amino acid phenylalanine,


. Inspired by the success Nirenberg, . Holly began a series of experiments, . primary purpose, . synthesis of molecules of RNA transport (transport of RNA and soluble low-molecular RNA, . which are vectors of amino acids to the ribosomes during the synthesis of the polypeptide chain) with the nucleotide sequence, . specific for phenylalanine,
. They were able to determine its nucleotide sequence. The studies Holly summarized in an article published in 1965 in the journal 'Science'.

But the determination of the nucleotide sequence of RNA was not the only discovery made by scientists. They were able to establish that the transport of RNA has two structures, primary and secondary. Primary structure is a sequence of bases in the nucleotide chain, and biologically active secondary structure shows the locations where the spiral turns of the RNA in contact with each other. Secondary structure looks like three-lobe clover. The sequence of nucleotides in the middle tier 'flower' complementary sequence of a similar structure in the mRNA. That is what provides the correct location of amino acids in the protein.

In 1968, Robert William Holley (with Khar Gobind Koran and Marshall Nirenberg) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 'for deciphering the genetic code and its role in protein synthesis'.

Professor Holley is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society of Biochemistry and the American Chemical Society

. Among numerous awards, Holly should mention the Albert Lasker Award for basic medical research (1965); Award U.S. Department of Agriculture for outstanding scientific achievements (1965); Award in Molecular Biology, U.S. Steel Society (1967),
.

He is also an honorary doctor of the University of Illinois.

Died Feb. 4, 1993 in Los Gatose, California.


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